Int. J. Biosci.22(2), 248-259, February 2023
The genus Ocimum belonging to family Lamiaceae with more than 160 species and is distributed mainly in Africa, Asia and America. The present study aims to characterize the morphological and anatomical traits of five species of Ocimum namely O. sanctum L. (purple variety), O. basilicum L., O. gratissimum L., O. americanum L., and O. sanctum L. (green variety) collected from the district. Variation of stomatal index and density were seen among all the species. O. sanctum L. is believed to be sacred or holy plant and has been widely used to treat fever, common cold, flu, and other respiratory disease. The stomatal index ranged from 41.8% to 37.5% in O. sanctum L. (purple variety) and O. gratissimum L. on the abaxial surface while on the adaxial surface the highest stomatal index ranged from 40.5% in O. sanctum L. (purple variety) to 31.8% in O. gratissimum L. The highest stomatal density (96.7mm2) was found in O. sanctum L. (green variety) and lowest stomatal density (71.2mm2) was found in both O. basilicum L. and O. americanum L. on the abaxial surface while on the adaxial surface it ranges from 76.3mm2 in O. sanctum L. (purple variety) to 31.8mm2 in O. gratissimum L.. By taking 44 morphological traits and 5 OTU a dendrogram was constructed using an analysis software SPSS 26.0 version which shows O. sanctum L. (purple variety) and O. basilicum L. having more similarity and has the lowest morphological variation distance 23. O. sanctum L. (green variety) has significant differences from all the other species with a square Euclidean distance of 66.
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