Antibiotic resistance pattern of pathogens causing nosocomial infections isolated from hospital environments in Algeria.

Paper Details

Research Paper 05/12/2022
Views (938) Download (101)

Antibiotic resistance pattern of pathogens causing nosocomial infections isolated from hospital environments in Algeria.

Imane Belkacem, Walid Hassini, Ali Mira Oussaid Yacine, Mekkaoui Haroun, Maamar Mokhtari
Int. J. Biosci.21( 6), 170-181, December 2022.
Certificate: IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


The emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents is a global public health problem, particularly, pathogens causing nosocomial infections.  This study aims to test the antibiotic resistance of strains isolated from hospital surfaces from six services at the Medea hospital in Algeria. In this context, we carried out a study on samples from the hospital environment. We collected 30 samples of which 32 strains were isolated and identified. Our results show the predominance of Gram-negative bacteria in nosocomial infections, but S. aureus was the most frequently isolated positive bacteria with a rate of 19%. The results show that 70% of the samples from the hospital environment were positive, of which beds and toilets had the highest rate. According to our study, the highest rate of resistant strains was observed in the male surgery (MS) and women’s medicine (WM) services. The antibiotic resistance study selected 16 resistant strains. 11 strains are Enterobacteriaceae, 4 strains are Staphylococcus aureus, and one strain is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The emergence of those bacteria constitutes a potential risk; however, the monitoring of the multi bacterial resistance has become a necessity and requires the establishment of an adapted strategy of intervention in order to avoid the risk of nosocomial infections.


Amiyare R, Afifi I, Ouhssine M. 2015. Hospital environment and risk of nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit of Provincial Hospital El Idrissi of Kenitra in Morocco. Scholars Research Library Der Pharmacia Lettre 7, 134-140.

Adams-Chapman I, Stoll BJ. 2007. Neonatal infection and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm infant. Curr Opin Infect Dis 19(3), 290-7.

Andre J, Katsanis G, Boirier J, Ctala M. 2007-2008. Histologie : organes, Université Bière et Marie Curie  11, 15.

Ashford WA, Golash RG, Hemming VG. 1976. Penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Lancet 308, 657–6.

Bereket W, Hemalatha K, Getenet B Wondwossen T, Solomon A, Zeynudin A, Kannan S. 2012. “Update on bacterial nosocomial infections,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 16, 1039–1044.

Berthelot P, Grattard F, Mallaval FO, Ros A, Lucht F, Pozzetto B. 2005. Épidémiologie des infections nosocomiales à Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia et Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Pathologie Biologie 53, 341-348.

Borguesi A, Stronati M. 2008. Strategies for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Hospital Infection 68, 293-300.

Breidenstein EB, de la Fuente-Nunez C, Hancock RE. 2011. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: all roads lead to resistance. Trends in Microbiology 19, 419-426.

CASFM. Recommandations. 2021. Comité de l’antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. EUCAST, 1, 0 Avril.

Charnas RL, Knowles JR. 1981. Inactivation of RTEM b-lactamase from Escherichia coli by clavulanic acid and 9-deoxyclavulanic acid. Biochemistry 20, 3214–3219.

Charnas RL, Fisher J, Knowles JR. 1978. Chemical studies on the inactivation of Escherichia coli RTEM b-lactamase by clavulanic acid. Biochemistry 17, 2185–2189.

Chaplain C. 1997. MAPAR, 563-573.

Chouki A, Sadki M, Samar M, Segueni NE. 2004. Contribution to the study of Nosocomial infections with Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteria. Thesis of PhD in Microbiology: Jijel University.

Cole M. 1982. Biochemistry and action of clavulanic acid. Scottish Medical Journal 27, S10–S16.

Ellenberg E. 2005. Nosocomial infection: reread history and think about the present. Public health 17, 471-474.

Emori TG, Gaynes RP. 1993. An Overview of Nosocomial Infections, Including the Role of the Microbiology Laboratory. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 6, 428-442.

Faye-Ketté H, Dosso H. 2010. Surveillance microbiologique des surfaces au niveau d’un établissement hospitalier de niveau tertiaire: exemple du chu de Yopougon, Abidjan, Cote d’ivoire. Journal of science 11, 73-81.

Foster TJ. 1983 Plasmid-determined resistance to antimicrobial drugs and toxic metal ions in bacteria. Microbiological Reviews 47, 361-409.

Gunn BA, Woodall JB, Jones JF, Thornsberry C. 1974. Letter: Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae. Lancet 2, 845.

Habboush Y, Yarrarapu SNS, Guzman N. 2022. Infection Control. StatPearls Publishing; Treasure Island (FL): 13.

Hancock RE, Spreet DP. 2000. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa : mechanisms and impact on treatment. Drug Resit Updat 3, 247-255.

Hauschild PT, Sacha P, Wieczorek P, Zalewska M, Kaczyñska K, Tryniszewska E. 2008. Aminoglycosides resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from a University Hospital in Bialystok. FOLIA HISTOCHEMICA ET CYTOBIOLOGICA 46, 225-228.

Kawagoe  JY,  Segre CA Pereira CR Cardoso MF Silva CVFukushima JT. 2004. Risk factors for nosocomial infections in critically ill newborns: a 5-year prospective cohort study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25, 192-197.

Khan W, Ross S, Rodriguez W, Controni G, Saz AK. 1974. Haemophilus influenzae type B resistant to ampicillin: A report of two cases. JAMA 229, 298–301.

Lacey RW, Chopra I. 1972. Evidence for mutation to streptomycin resistance in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of General Microbiology 73, 175 180.

Livermore DM. 2000. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococci. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 16, 3- 10.

Lyon BR. and Skurray R. 1987. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus: genetic basis. Microbiological Reviews 51, 88 134.

O’Neill J.2014.  Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a Crisis for the Health and Wealth of Nations. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance UK 20, 1-16.

Pessoa-Silva CL,  Dharan S,  Hugonnet S, Touveneau S,  Posfay-Barbe K,  Pfister R,  Pittet D. 2004. Dynamics of bacterial hand contamination during routine neonatal care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25(3), 192-7.

Reacher M, Ramsay M, White J, De Zoysa A,  Efstratiou A,  Mann G,  Mackay A,  George RC. 2000. Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae: an emerging pathogen in England and Wales? Emerg Infect Diseases 6, 640–5.

Reading C, Cole M. 1977. Clavulanic acid: A b-lactamase inhibitor from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 11, 852–857.

Sefraoui I. 2015. Study of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at different hospitals in western Algeria (Thesis of PhD in Microbiology: Abou Bekr Belkaid University Tlemcen.

Seydina MD. 2016. Determination of bacterial susceptibility and resistance to antimicrobial agents. AEMIP.

Shannon K and Phillips I. 1982. Mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides in clinical isolates. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 9, 91 102.

Shaw KJ, Rather PN, Hare RS, Miller GH. 1993. Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationship of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Microbiological Reviews 57, 138 163.

Shinagawa N, Taniguchi M, Hirata K, Furuhata T, Fukuhara K,  Mizugucwi T. 2014. Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents-special references to bacteria isolated between April 2010 and March 2011. Jpn J Antibiot 67(5), 293-334.

Simpson IN, Harper PB, O’Callaghan CH. 1980. Principal b-lactamases responsible for resistance to b-lactam antibiotics in urinary tract infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17, 929 –936.

Williams ST, Sharpe ME, Holt JG. 1989. Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins 4.

Zaidi AK, Huskins WC, Thaver D. 2005. Hospital-Acquired Neonatal Infections in Developing Country. Lancet 365, 1175-1188.

Zenati K, Touati A, Bakour S, Sahli F, Rolain JM. 2016. Characterization of NDM-1-and OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from inanimate surfaces in a hospital environment in Algeria. Journal of Hospital Infection 92, 19-26.

Rezende EM, Marinho Couto BR, Ferreira Starling CE, Módena CM. 1998. Prevalence of Nosocomial Infections in General Hospitals in Belo Horizonte. Infection Control and Hospi.