J. Bio. Env. Sci.8(1), 17-33, January 2016
Gastropods have never been studied in Punjab, Pakistan with reference to its diversity and distribution. Different ecological factors have been studied which affect the distribution of the snail in the agroecosystem of this region. Total number of 19290 snails specimens, were collected from different cropland areas of 24 villages of Faisalabad including sugarcane, wheat, fodder, vegetables fields and ditches. The specimens were identified on the basis of recent identification keys and diagrammatic description provided in them to understand the biodiversity in this region. The diversity index was found highly significant in sugarcane, wheat, fodder, and vegetables fields however the results were non-significant in case of ditches. The relative abundance was maximum in sugarcane and least in ditches. The diversity index was significantly high in all months except in April whereas the relative abundance was maximum in July and August. It can be concluded that due to environmental degradation and water pollution the snail diversity is non significant, in ditches however in the agroecosystem it is a pest. It can be suggested that strategies must be developed to control water quality deterioration and its biological control as a pest.
Abbot TR. 1989. Compendium of land snails. American Malacologists, Inc., Melbourne, Florida, USA. 1-240.
Ali RA. 2005. A Study on the Occurrence of Some Mollusca Species in Sugarcane Fields. M-Phil Thesis, Department of Zoology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Altaf J. 2006. Occurance of Some Snails in Some Wheat fields of Faisalabad. M-phil. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Anderson R. 2008. “An annotated list of the non-marine Mollusca of Britain and Ireland” http://www.molluscs.at/gastropoda/terrestrial.html
Baillie J, Hilton Taylor C, Stuart SN. (Eds.). 2004. IUCN red list of threatened species: a global species assessment.
Bouchet P. 1997. The future of the western Palaearctic mollusc fauna: from scientific evaluation to conservation. Contributions to Palaearctic Malacology, Heldia 4(5), 13-18.
Bouchet P, Rocroi JP. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families (47):1/2. Institute of Malacology.
Blandford FRS, Auston Godwin HH. 1908. The Fauna of British India (Mollusca). Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, London. 1-303.
Cartea ME., Padilla G., Vilar M., & Velasco P. (2009) Incidence of the major Brassica pests in northwestern Spain. Journal of economic entomology 102(2), 767-773
Chao A. 1984. Nonparametric estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scandinavian Journal of statistics, 265-270.
De Winter AJ, Gittenberger E. 1998. The land snail fauna of a square kilometer patch of rainforest in southwestern Cameroon, high species richness, low abundance and seasonal fluctuations. Malacologia, 40(1-2), 231-250.
Fontaine B, Gargominy O, Neubert E. 2007b. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia, 49(2), 313-338.
Gorbatovsky VV. 2003. Red Data Books of the Subjects of the Russian Federation: the reference book. NIA-Priroda, Moscow (in Russian).
Grebennikov ME, Vinarski MV. 2010. Non-Marine Mollusc Species in the Regional Red Data Books of the Urals and Siberia (RUSSIAN FEDERATION) Tentacle, (18)17.
Hapman AD. 2009. “Numbers of Living Species in Australia and the World”. 2nd edition. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.
Heong KL, Aquino GB, Barrion AT. 1991. Arthropod community structures of rice ecosystems in the Philippines. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 81(04), 407-416.
Holland BS, Cowie RH. 2009. Land Snail Models in Island Biogeography: A Tale of Two Snails. American Malacological Bulletin, 27(1/2), 59-68.
Inayat TP, Rana SA, Khan HA. 2010. Diversity of insect fauna in croplands of District Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(3), 245-250.
Johnson PJ. 2003. Sustaining America’s aquatic biodiversity. Freshwater snail biodiversity and conservation. 420–530. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Blacksburg, Virginia. (http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/fisheries/420530/420– 530.html).
Khanum TA. 2010. Taxonomic Studies on Plant and Soil Nematodes of Sugar Cane Fields with Special Reference to Entomopat Hogenic Nematodes. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi .
Liew TS, Schilthuizen M, Bin Lakim M. 2010. The determinants of land snail diversity along a tropical elevational gradient: insularity, geometry and niches. Journal of biogeography 37(6), 1071-1078.
Ludwig JA, Reynolds JF. 1988. Statistical ecology: a primer of methods and computing. Wiley Press, New York, New York. 337 p.
Lydeard C, Cowie RH, Ponder WF, Bogan AE, Bouchet P, Clark SA, Thompson FG. 2004. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks. Bio Science 54(4), 321-330.
Magurran AE. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Rana N. 2012. Biodiversity of Soil Macroinvertebrates in Low and High Input Fields of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) and Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum L.) in District Faisalabad. PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Rana SA, Rafique A, Qureshi JI. 2000. Ecological distribution of earthworms species along some water channels, water ditches, canals and river in the Agro-Ecosystem of Faisalabad Division. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 10(4), 126-130.
Rahman MSU. Biodiversity of the Snails From the Agro-Ecosystem of Tehsil Faisalabad City. B. S Thesis, Government College University, Faisalabad Red List of Threatened Species (2002).
Schilthuizen M, Liew TS, Elahan BB, Lackman‐Ancrenaz I. 2005. Effects of karst forest degradation on pulmonate and prosobranch land snail communities in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Conservation Biology, 19(3), 949-954
Siddiqui MJI. 2005. Studies on the Biodiversity of Invertebrates in the Wheat Triticum aestivum Farm Agroecosystems of Punjab, Pakistan. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Zoology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Sturm C, Pearce T, Valdes A. 2006. The Mollusks: A Guide to their Study, Collection and Preservation. American Malacological Society.
Thompson FG. 2004. An Identification Manual for the Freshwater Snails of Florida. Curator of Malacology Florida Museum of Natural History University of Florida Gainesville, Florida.
Watson L, Dallwitz MJ. 2005. Onwards. The families of British non-marine molluscs (slugs, snails and mussels). Version: 4th January 2012. http://delta-intkey.com.