Biofillm: multicellular living of the unicellular bacteria

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Review Paper 01/06/2012
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Biofillm: multicellular living of the unicellular bacteria

Shah Adil Ishtiyaq Ahmad, S. M. Nayeemul Bari, Mohammad Mohiuddin
Int. J. Biosci.2( 6), 59-71, June 2012.
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Abstract

Unicellular bacterium in nature prefers to gather round to form a surface attached multi-cellular consortium called biofilm rather than living as an isolated planktonic cell. Biofilms comprise of the bacterial cells attached to a biotic or abiotic surface and the extracellular polymeric substances excreted by the participant cells. Many bacteria can detect environmental signals and respond accordingly to form biofilm and to detach from it. Formation of biofilm is crucial for the survival of the bacteria in the environment and for their interaction within and out of the species. Cells within biofilms are distinct from the free swimming planktonic cells – both physiologically and genetically. Such distinctive features are crucial for the maintenance of the biofilm structure. Biofilms provide the bacteria with various survival and metabolic advantages over the planktonic form. Mixed species biofilms better resemble the environmental biofilm consortia where a group of related bacteria gather onto a single surface and interact among them for the betterment of the whole community. This review discusses about the basic steps of biofilm formation and the specialties of this unique bacterial architecture.

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