Int. J. Biosci.15( 6), 363-369, December 2019
Parasitic diseases are present in traditional free-range chicken production system, where there are no regular treatment measures. The diseases also persist in commercial chicken flocks, especially the deep-litter system, which provides direct-cycle parasites with a favorable environment for their proliferation. Knowledge of the prevalence of these infestations is necessary for the purpose of strengthening preventive measures. A descriptive observational study was carried out in Abomey-Calavi district on 150 chicken flocks, 70 flocks of layers, 30 flocks of broilers in commercial system and 50 flocks in free-range system. Faecal samples examination using the simple flotation technique allowed to identifying four targeted gastrointestinal parasites such as Eimeria spp., Ascaridia galli, Heterakis spp. and Capillaria spp. through an existing documented parasite egg morphological reference. The results showed that in the two chicken production systems the most prevalent parasite was Eimeria spp., 33.33 and 77% in layers and broilers in commercial system and 70 and 65% for adult and young birds in free-range system. It was followed by ascaridia, which showed almost the same prevalence in the two chicken production systems varying from 22 to 33%. Lower prevalences were recorded in Heterakis and Capillaria in the two production systems. Heterakis was more prevalent in commercial system while Capillaria more frequent in free-range chicken flocks with a total absence of Capillaria in broilers. The indirect-cycle characteristic of some Capillaria species can hamper their proliferation in strict-confinement commercial system. Problems related to poor sanitation can also explain these results, especially in commercial chicken flocks.
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