Climate change effect on major crops production in Balochistan, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2019
Views (286) Download (12)

Climate change effect on major crops production in Balochistan, Pakistan

Rahmatullah, Khalid Nawab
Int. J. Biosci.14( 2), 153-160, February 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


The present study was developed to assess the effect of climate change on production of major crops in Balochistan with special reference to farmers’ perceptions. A total of 384 farmers were selected through unknown population formula from the three randomly selected districts of Balochistan province including Musakhail, Loralai and Zhob among which 128 farmers from each district were selected. Data were collected through valid and pre-tested interview schedule. Paired sample t-test and one sample t-test was used for the analysis of data. Significant increase in cultivable waste area and underground water table was observed. Results further reveal that farmers are left to cultivate major crops i.e. wheat 6.18%, Maize, 25.71% and Mash, 59.17% due to less or no water for irrigation and unpredictable rainfall. Significant decreased was observed in the production and area of all major crops in last 10 to 15 years. Majority of farmers are shifting from long term to short term crops. All the farmers were agreed and interested in the adoption of suitable adaptation strategies but the major constraint in the adoption of adaptation strategies is limited awareness, poverty and scarcity of irrigation water. Water management skills of farmers should be developed to avoid water losses. Water reservoirs should be construct to store the rain water for irrigation as well as to recharge the ground water. Agriculture Extension department should create awareness about suitable adaptation strategies to overcome the effect of climate change.


Ahmad S. 2006. Issues restricting capping of Tubewell subsidy and strategy for introducing the smart subsidy in Balochistan. Water for Balochistan-Policy Brief 2, 1-9.

Ashraf M, Routray JK. 2013. Perception and understanding of drought and coping strategies of farming households in north-west Balochistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 5, 49-60.

Banerjee RR. 2015. Farmers’ perception of climate change, impact and adaptation strategies: A case study of four villages in the semi-arid regions of India. Natural Hazards 75, 2829-2845.

Casley DJ, Kumar K. 1988. The collection, analysis and use of monitoring and evaluation data. The World Bank.

Challinor AJ, Wheeler TR, Slingo JM, Hemming D. 2005. Quantification of Physical and Biological Uncertainty in the Simulation of the Yield of a Tropical Crop Using Present day and Doubled CO2 Climates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360, 2085–2094.

GoP. 2016. Government of Pakistan Economic Survey 2015-2016, Islamabad. Retrieval Date.  August 28, 2018.

Mertz O, Mbow C, Reenberg A, Diouf A. 2009. Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. Environmental Management 43, 804–816.

Porter JR, Semenov MA. 2005. Crop Responses to Climatic Variability. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360, 2021–2035.

Rehman H.  2009. Food Scarcity in Pakistan Causes, Dynamics and Remedies. Journal of Managerial Sciences 3, 236-247.

Singh I, Grover J. 2013. Role of extension agencies  in climate change related adaptation strategies. International Journal of Farm Sciences 3, 144-155.

SMEDA. 2017. Introduction to regional profile of Balochistan.

Thomas D, Twyman C, Osbahr H, Hewitson B. 2007. Adaptation to climate change and variability: Farmer responses to intra-seasonal precipitation trends in South Africa. Climatic Change 83, 301–322.

UNDP. 2015. Request for Proposals (RFP): Drought Risk Assessment in Selected Districts of Balochistan. Islamabad, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), p 103-104.

Watch G, Harmeling S, Eckstein D. 2018. Global Climate Risk Index. 2019.