Commercial production of alpha amylase enzyme for potential use in the textile industries in Bangladesh

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/10/2018
Views (410) Download (6)

Commercial production of alpha amylase enzyme for potential use in the textile industries in Bangladesh

Khandaker Md. Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Md. Forhad Hossain, Sheikh Abul Mansur, Salek Ahmed Sajib, Md. Masum Miah, Kazi Md. Faisal Hoque, Md Abu Reza
Int. J. Biosci.13( 4), 149-157, October 2018.
Certificate: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


In Bangladesh textile and apparel industry is in the leading position in industrial structure. It contributes 12% of the country’s GDP and also accounts for almost 78% of total exports, making it countries leading foreign exchange earner. Alpha amylase is an enzyme used in textile industry for smoothening the fabric. It is also used in many washing powder, food and paper industries. But yet we do not produce this enzyme in Bangladesh though its production and purification technique is rather simple. Each year we spend a huge amount of foreign currency to import it. In this study we scaled down the production cost of alpha amylase in a pilot project. Aspergillus niger was used in this project for alpha amylase production. A. niger was cultured in PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth) medium for seed production. Wheat bran was used as substrate for fermentation. Substrates were pre-treated with 1% NaOH for hydrolysis and washed with dH2O until neutral pH obtained. Substrates were then dried overnight using oven. MSM (Minimum Salt Medium) medium with some modifications was used for fermentation. Fermentation was carried out at 28°C at a pH of 6.2. Extraction of the enzyme was carried out by centrifugation. CMC and DNS assay showed good performance of the extracted enzyme. The calculated production cost of our enzyme is 57.92 taka per liter which is cheaper than imported ones (~450 taka per liter). Therefore, we strongly recommend that entrepreneur should be contacted to go for industrial scale alpha amylase production in Bangladesh.


Aiyer PV. 2005. Amylases and their applications, African Journal of Biotechnology 4(13), 1525-1529.

Bailey MJ, Biely P, Poutanen K. 1992. Interlaboratory testing of methods for assay of xylanase activity, Journal of Biotechnology 23(3), 257-270.

Balkan B, Ertan F. 2007. Production of α-Amylase from Penicillium chrysogenum under solid-state fermentation by using some agricultural by-products, Food Technology and Biotechnology 45(4), 439-442.

Bhargav S, Panda BP, Ali M, Javed S. 2008. Solid-state fermentation: an overview, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly 22(1), 49-70.

Bhavya D. 2007. Production and characterization of fungal amylase enzyme isolated from Aspergillus sp. JGI 12 in solid state culture,African Journal of Biotechnology 6(5), 576-581.

Bin G, Laisu X, Youfang D, Yanquan L. 1997. Screening of alpha-amylase high-producing strains from Bacillus subtilis, Journal of Zhejiang Agricultural University 23, 88.

Burhan A, Nisa U, Gökhan C, Ömer C, Ashabil A, Osman G. 2003. Enzymatic properties of a novel thermostable, thermophilic, alkaline and chelator resistant amylase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. isolate ANT-6, Process Biochemistry 38(10), 1397-1403.

Balasubramanian T, Manivannan S. 2007.Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger isolated from coastal mangrove debris, Trends Appllied Science Resonance 2, 23-27.

Ellaiah P, Adinarayana K, Bhavani Y, Padmaja P, Srinivasulu B. 2002. Optimization of process parameters for glucoamylase production under solid state fermentation by a newly isolated Aspergillus species, Process Biochemistry 38(4), 615-620.

Erdal S, Taskin M. 2010. Production of α-amylase by Penicillium expansum MT-1 in solid-state fermentation using waste Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindley) kernels as substrate, Romanian Biotechnological Letters 15(3), 5342-5350.

Gangadharan D, Sivaramakrishnan S, Nampoothiri KM,  Pandey A. 2006. Solid culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-amylase production, Food Technology and Biotechnology 44(2), 269-274.

Ghose T. 1987. Measurement of cellulase activities, Pure and Applied Chemistry 59(2), 257-268.

Gomes I, Shaheen M, Rahman SR, Gomes DJ. 2006. Comparative studies on production of cell wall-degrading hydrolases by Trichoderma reesei and T. viride in submerged and solid-state cultivations, Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 23(2), 149-155.

Goto CE, Barbosa EP, Kistner LSC, Moreira FG, Lenartovicz V, Peralta RM. 1998. Production of amylase by Aspergillus fumigatus utilizing α-methyl-D-glycoside, a synthetic analogue of maltose, as substrate, FEMS Microbiology Letters 167(2), 139-143.

Gupta A, Gupta V, Modi D, Yadava L. 2008. Production and characterization of α-amylase from Aspergillus niger, Biotechnology 7(3), 551-556.

Handajani NS, Setyaningsih R. 2006. Identifikasi jamur dan deteksi aflatoksin B1 terhadap petis udang komersial, Biodiversitas 7(3), 212-215.

Kathiresan K, Manivannan S. 2006. Amylase production by Penicillium fellutanum isolated from mangrove rhizosphere soil, African Journal of Biotechnology 5(10), 829-832.

Kelly C, Heffernan M, Fogarty W. 1980. A novel α-glucosidase produced by Bacillus amylolyticus, Biotechnology Letters 2(8), 351-356.

Khan JA, Yadav SK. 2011. Production of alpha amylases by Aspergillus niger using cheaper substrates employing solid state fermentation, International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 1(3), 100-108.

Konsoula Z, Liakopoulou-Kyriakides M. 2007. Co-production of α-amylase and β-galactosidase by Bacillus subtilis in complex organic substrates, Bioresource Technology 98(1), 150-157.

Laderman KA, Davis BR, Krutzsch HC, Lewis MS, Griko Y, Privalov PL, Anfinsen CB. 1993. The purification and characterization of an extremely thermostable alpha-amylase from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus, Journal of Biological Chemistry 268(32), 24394-24401.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent, Journal of Biological Chemistry 193(1), 265-275.

Mishra S, Behera N. 2008. Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil receiving kitchen wastes, African Journal of Biotechnology 7(18), 3326-3331.

Muthezhilan R, Ashok R, Jayalakshmi S. 2007. Production and optimization of thermostable alkaline xylanase by Penicillium oxalicum in solid state fermentation, African Journal of Microbiology Research 1(2), 20-28.

Nandakumar M, Thakur M, Raghavarao K, Ghildyal N. 1999. Studies on catabolite repression in solid state fermentation for biosynthesis of fungal amylases, Letters in Applied Microbiology 29(6), 380-384.

Oboh G. 2005. Isolation and characterization of amylase from fermented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) wastewater, African Journal of Biotechnology 4(10), 1117-1123.

Pandey A. 1991. Aspects of fermenter design for solid-state fermentations, Process Biochemistry 26(6), 355-361.

Pham PL, Taillandier P, Delmas M, Strehaiano P. 1998. Production of xylanases by Bacillus polymyxa using lignocellulosic wastes, Industrial Crops and Products 7(2-3), 195-203.

Rajagopalan G, Krishnan C. 2008. α-Amylase production from catabolite derepressed Bacillus subtilis KCC103 utilizing sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, Bioresource Technology 99(8), 3044-3050.

Shah I, Gami P, Shukla R, Acharya D. 2014. Optimization for α-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae using submerged fermentation technology, Basic Research Journal of Microbiology 1(4), 01-10.

Sharma R, Rajak RC. 2003. Keratinophilic fungi: Nature’s keratin degrading machines!, Resonance 8(9), 28-40.

Shinde R, Dhangar M, Narwade R. 2014. Amylase production on solid state fermentation by wild type and mutant bacillus licheniformis & aspergillus niger from agro-wastes, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 5(7), 2703.

Singh R, Kapoor V, Kumar V. 2011. Influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on the -amylase production by a newly isolated thermophilic Streptomyces sp., Asian Journal of Biotechnology 3(6), 540-553.

Singh S, Tyagi C, Dutt D, Upadhyaya J. 2009. Production of high level of cellulase-poor xylanases by wild strains of white-rot fungus Coprinellus disseminatus in solid-state fermentation, New Biotechnology 26(3-4), 165-170.