Comprehensive environmental sustainability survey study in Pakistan contemplating environmental issues, pollution problems, and sustainable solutions approaches

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2021
Views (325) Download (21)

Comprehensive environmental sustainability survey study in Pakistan contemplating environmental issues, pollution problems, and sustainable solutions approaches

Sunila Kanwal, Omm-e-Hany, Syed Shahid Shaukat, Aamir Alamgir
Int. J. Biosci.19( 6), 20-34, December 2021.
Certificate: IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


Environmental problems are the major concerns and talk of the town of every nation around the world. Indeed, legislations are the most important tool for implementing the obligations in a unified and harmonized manner in every state, even considered as developed or underdeveloped. Unfortunately, inadequately financed, mismanaged, insufficient coordination, poor strength and capacity building, self-centered attitudes, discriminations, lack of knowledge and holistic decisions enlarge the problems rather diminishing, although progressive thoughts persist. Pakistan is also one of the affected countries, among others, facing these issues. Therefore, in keeping the severity of the environmental issues and considering the importance of the constitution of Pakistan (1973), environmental importance in the legislative list in terms of environmental pollution and ecology is highlighted. The first time Pakistan conducted the comprehensive environmental survey study to know about knowledge and opinions of the learned Pakistani people about environmental problems and their solutions. In this regard, results are statistically analyzed and show that the participants are sensitively thinking over the protection of the environment and have more trepidations about local issues rather than global ones. The green suggestive action behavior in the restoration of natural environs are also noted, discussed through ESS and found considerately helpful and obliged response towards sustainability of bionetwork. Therefore two models are also framed with the support of a detailed literature review, provided as ESM-SS and IMF-ESM- that in fact, translates the conclusive views of the valuable contributors on Environmental Sustainability Survey (ESS). These models act as supportive tools in the formulation of better improved, symbolic and thought-provoking strategies for sustainable solutions to the environmental problems in Pakistan.


Aamir H. 2005. B01-Renewable Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development 2005. Also Prospect of renewable energy sources in Pakistan.

Afzal A. 2019. Time for Carbon Tax. Published in Dawn. Updated December 12th, 2019.

Alley R, Berntsen T, Bindoff NL, Chen Z, Chidthaisong A, Friedlingstein PM, Hoskins B.  2007. Climate change 2007:  The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers. IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. p 21.

BarOn   YM,   Phillips R,   Milo   R.   2018.   The   biomass   distribution   on earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115(25), 6506-6511.

Bierbaum R, Cowie A, Barra R, Ratner B, Sims R, Stocking M, Whaley C. 2018. Integration: To solve complex environmental problems. Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel to the Global Environment Facility. Washington, DC.

Candace MW. 2004. Can Voluntary Compliance and Self-Regulatory Environmental Policies Restrain White Collar Workers from Breaking the Law? An Analysis Using Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory. Retrieved April 1, 2004.

Chapa J,    Ortega A.   2017.   Carbon   tax   effects   on   the   poor:   a   SAM-based approach. Environmental Research Letters 12(9), 094021.

Dawn Editorial. 2015. Carbon Emission Tax. Published in Dawn. Updated November, 2015.

Hens L, Ren J. 2021. A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development. Environment, Development and Sustainability.

Erkekoglu P, Kocer-Gumusel B. 2016. Environmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: A special focus on phthalates and bisphenol A. Environmental Health, 155.

Falvey L. 2004. Reconceiving food security and environmental protection. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 1(1362-2016-107610), 13-28.

Fidh. 2018. Human rights and environmental protection are interdependent. Press Release, Business and Human Right.

Gore AC, Crews D, Doan LL, La Merrill M, Patisaul H, Zota A. 2014. Introduction   to   endocrine   disrupting   chemicals   (EDCs). A   guide   for   public   interest organizations and policy-makers, 21-22.

Hanif M. 2018. 40% of all deaths in Pakistan are caused by water contamination. The New York Times. Updated November 23rd, 2018.

Ilyas SZ. 2007. A review of transport and urban air pollution in Pakistan. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 11(2).

Irfan U. 2019. Why the US bears the most responsibility for climate change, in one chart. Island Countries of the World. (2017). Archived from the original on 2017-12-07. Retrieved August 8th, 2019.

Kennedy C, Lindsey R. 2015. What’s the difference between global warming and climate change?. Science & Information for a Climate- Smart Nation. Climate .gov.

Khazvini F. 2015. Segregation – The First Step to Keeping 60% of our Waste Out of the Landfill.

Linnenluecke M, Griffiths A. 2010. Beyond adaptation: resilience for business in light of climate change and weather extremes. Business & Society, 49(3), 477-511.

Ortolano L. 1984. Environmental planning and decision making.

The News. 2020. Pakistan Forest Institute (PFI). The News Paper, Pakistan.

Pakistan Today. 2018. Pakistan among 12 worst countries in environmental pollution: EPI report. Last Upated: January 24th, 2018.

Pillai V, Burrows R, Brandl D. 2011. North American Conference, March 24–26, 2008, By. The WBF Book Series–ISA 88 and ISA 95 in the Life Science Industries 4, p 273.

Rehman    S.    2018. Pakistan’s Rising    Air    Pollution    Crisis.    The    Diplomat.,are%20attributed%20to%20air%20pollution.

Ritchie H, Roser M. 2017. CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Updated August 2020. emissions.

Saha P, Ahmad S, Abbasi A, Khan M. 2009. Environmental management systems and sustainability: Integrating sustainability in environmental management systems.

Shams T, Khwaja MA. 2019. Assessment of Pakistan National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS’s) with Selected Asian Countries and WHO.

Shaukat S, Siddique IA. 2005. Essential of Mathematical Ecology (Computer program is basic Fortran and C₊₊). Publisher Sir Farquan, Publisher Karachi.

The Express Turbine. 2020. Climate change deaths. Updated January 6th, 2020.

The Economic Times. 2020. Earth is healing: Global air quality improved this year due to COVID lock down. Updated May 14, 2020.