Diversity assessment of fruit-bearing tree species in Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University forest reserve

Paper Details

Research Paper 18/03/2024
Views (94) Download (42)

Diversity assessment of fruit-bearing tree species in Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University forest reserve

Angelo L. Lozano, Mark Jerome L. Gimeno, Cindy E. Poclis, Jayric F. Villareal, Jay Mark G. Cortado
J. Bio. Env. Sci.24( 3), 174-184, March 2024.
Certificate: JBES 2024 [Generate Certificate]


This study was conducted to determine the diversity of fruit-bearing tree species in Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU) Forest Reserve. Specifically, the study aimed to inventory the fruit bearing tree species present in DMMMSU Forest Reserve, classify the fruit-bearing tree species in the study area, identify their conservation status, compute their importance value, and determine their distribution through diversity indices. There were 12 quadrats established with a dimension of 20 m x 20 m each. The study area was selected based on the presence of wide range of vegetation in DMMMSU Forest Reserve. There are 473 individual species identified at DMMMSU Forest Reserve belonging to 14 families with 24 species. One species recorded, Tectona philippinensis Benth. & Hook. f. Verbenaceae, was listed as endangered species. Coffea spp. had the highest density and importance value, and Mangifera indica L. had the highest frequency. The diversity indices had a relative value of moderate and high degree of diversity. Continuous protection of the Forest Reserve is therefore recommended. Planting of additional fruit-bearing tree species in the area with low diversity indices are recommended to increase diversity. Areas within the Forest Reserve with low plant diversity were recommended for planting and assisted natural regeneration programs using species with high importance value. Regular monitoring should be conducted in the Forest Reserve to assess the changes in diversity of fruit-bearing tree species to support decision-making and policy formulations.


Aban JL. 2015. Parents attitudes on the environment and their familiarity and perspectives on environmental education: A thrust to DMMMSU-NLUC’s status as the most eco-friendly campus in Region 1. 3rd National Multidisciplinary Research Conference, University of Northern Philippines – Vigan City, Ilocos Sur, April 27- 29, 2015. pp. 1-17.

Abraham ERG, Gonzalez JCT, Castillo ML, Lit Jr IL, Fernando ES. 2010. Forest cover and biodiversity profile of the crater area of Mt. Makiling, Luzon, Philippines. Asia Life Sciences-The Asian International Journal of Life Sciences 4, 49-82.

Akin-Idowu PE, Adebo UG, Egbekunle KO, Olagunju YO, Aderonmu OI, Aduloju AO. 2020. Diversity of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars based on physicochemical, nutritional, antioxidant, and phytochemical traits in Southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Fruit Science 20(sup2), S352-S376.

Amponsah IG, Cobbinah JR, Ayivor JS. 2017. Tree species diversity, structure and regeneration in a tropical forest reserve in Ghana. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 9(9), 281-293.

Armenteras D, Rodríguez N, Retana J. 2009. Are conservation strategies effective in avoiding the deforestation of the Colombian Guyana Shield? Biological Conservation 142, 1411-1419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.002.

Asifat JT, Oyelowo O, Orimoogunje OI. 2019. Assessment of Tree Diversity  and Abundance in Selected Forest Reserves in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal 6, 1-16.

Avila JM, López-Sánchez CA, Romo-Vázquez R. 2013. Diversity and composition of woody plant species in a shade coffee agroecosystem in Veracruz, Mexico. Agroforestry Systems 87(5), 1169-1180.

Berg CC. 2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 1: the main subdivision of Ficus: the subgenera. Blumea-Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants 48(1), 166-177.

Biodiversity A-Z. 2014. Megadiverse Countries. Retrieved on May 16, 2022 from http://www.biodiversitya.org/content/megadiverse-countries.

Brundu G, Richardson DM. 2016. Planted forests and invasive alien trees in Europe: A Code for managing existing and future plantings to mitigate the risk of negative impacts from invasions. NeoBiota 30, 5-47.

CABI DIGITAL LIBRARY. (2019). Tectona grandis. Retrieved on    https://doi.org/10.1079/cabicompendium.52899

Comita LS, Hubbell SP. 2009. Local neighborhood and species’ shade tolerance influence survival in a diverse seedling bank. Ecology 90(2), 328-334.

Coracero EE, Malabrigo Jr PL. 2020. Diversity Assessment of Tree Species in Sitio Dicasalarin, Barangay Zabali, Baler, Aurora, Philippines.

Coritico FP, Lagunday NE, Galindon JMM, Tandang DN, Amoroso VB. 2020. Diversity of trees and structure of forest habitat types in Mt. Tago Range, Mindanao, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 14(3), 1-11.

Conservation International. 2005. Biodiversity Hotspots. Retrieved on May 20, 2022 from http://www.cnrs.fr/inee/recherche/fichiers/Biodiversite_hotspots.pdf.

Connell JH. 1980. Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 131-138.

CO, L., JR. (2017). Digital Flora of the Philippines. Retrieved from http://philippineplants.org/

Curtis JT, Mclntosh RP. 1950. The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31(3), 434-455. https://doi.org/10.2307/1931497

Craves J. 2006. What is shade-grown coffee? Retrieved on April 5, 2023 from https://www.coffeehabitat.com

Echo Community. 2014. Fruit Trees. Retrieved on June 08, 2022 from https://www.echocommunity.org/en/resources/a7fl5d-539-4daa-aa65 2131c05e322a

Forest Management Bureau (FMB). 2023. Administrative Order No. 01, Series of 2011: Guidelines on the Establishment and Management of the National and Provincial Forest Tree Parks. Forest Management Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Republic of the Philippines.

Food And Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. 2015. Mango growing. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7846e.pdf

Fernando ES, Co LC, Lagunzad DA, Gruezo BJ, Madulid DA, Zamora PM. 2008. Threatened plants of the Philippines: a preliminary. Asia Life Sci. 3, 1-52.

Ganeshamurthy AN, Reddy YTN. 2015. Fitness of mango for colonization in low fertility soils and dry lands: Examination of leaf life-span, leaf nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency in elite mango varieties. Agricultural research 4, 254-260.

Gotelli NJ, Colwell RK. 2011. Estimating Species Richness. In: Biological Diversity: Frontiers in Measurement and Assessment, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, 39-54.

Global Forest Watch. 2022. Philippine Deforestation Rate and Statistics.  Retrieved on February 10, 2024 from https://www.globalforestwatch.org/dashboards/country/PHL/

Grant B. 2019. Information About Mango. Retrieved on April 1, 2023 from https://www.gardeningknowhow.com

Hallett JT, Díaz-Calvo J, Villa-Castillo J, Wagner MR. 2011. Teak plantations: economic bonanza or environmental disaster? Journal of Forestry 109(5), 288-292.

Harrison RD. 2005. Figs and the diversity of tropical rainforests. Bioscience 55(12), 1053-1064.

Ifo SA, Moutsambote JM, Koubouana F, Yoka J, Ndzai SF, Bouetou-Kadilamio LNO, Joel LJ. 2016. Tree species diversity, richness, and similarity in intact and degraded forest in the tropical rainforest of the Congo Basin: case of the forest of Likouala in the Republic of Congo. International Journal of Forestry Research, 2016.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-1. Retrieved from https://www.iucnredlist.org

Kacholi DS. 2014. Analysis of structure and diversity of the Kilengwe forest in the Morogoro region, Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity.

Kollert W, Kleine M. 2017. The Global Steak Study “Analysis, Evaluation and Future Potential of Teak Resources. IUFRO World Series Volume 36. Vienna. 108p.

Kunwar RM, Sharma SP. 2004. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species in Two Community Forests of Dolpa District, Mid-West Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences 2, 23-28. Retrieved on April 27, 2022 from https://doi.org/10.3126/hjs.v2i3.226

Krebs CJ. 2014. Ecological Methodology. 3. ed. In preparation. Available: Retrieved on May 06, 2022 from http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~krebs/books.html [2014, 10.10.]

Krebs CJ. (2014). Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. Benjamin Cummings.

Lafrankie JV, Primavera JH, Paragas-Parayno L, Bandiola D, Vergara S,  Siringan F. 2006. Assessment of degraded lowland dipterocarp forest in Samar Island Natural Park, Philippines. Silliman Journal 47(2), 110-136.

Leimu R, Fischer M. 2008. A meta-analysis of local adaptation in plants. PloS one 3(12), e4010.

Mace GM. 2004. The Role of Taxonomy in Species Conservation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 359, 711-719. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1454

Mallinis G, Chrysafis I, Korakis G, Pana E, Kyriazopoulos AP. 2020. A random forest modelling procedure for a multi-sensor assessment of tree species diversity. Remote Sensing 12(7), 1210.

Mani S, Parthasarathy N. 2006. Tree Diversity and Stand Structure in Inland and Coastal Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests of Peninsular India. Current Science 1238-1246.

Oliveira W. 2020. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. Retrieved on March 28, 2023 from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126659

Ong PS, Afuang LE, Rosell-Ambal RG. 2002. Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities: A Second Iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Retrieved on April 27, 2022 from https://www.fishbase.de/References/FBRefSummary.php?id=45694&lang=laos

Parker JD, Burkepile DE, Hay ME. 2006. Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions. Science 311(5766), 1459-1461.

Raha D. 2023. Tree diversity, stand structure and species composition in three tropical dry deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 13(4), 158.

Suratman MN. 2012. Tree Species Diversity and Forest Stand Structure of Pahang National Park, Malaysia. Biodiversity Enrichment in a Diverse World 19, 45-56.

SF Gate Contributor. 2016. How do Fruit Trees Help Environment. Retrieved on June 10, 2022 from https://homeguides.sfgate.com/fruit-trees-environment-59135.html

Tyrväinen L, Pauleit S, Seeland K, Vries SD. 2005. Benefits and uses of urban forests and trees. In Urban forests and trees (pp. 81-114). Springer, Berlin,Heidelberg.

Villegas Violeta N. 2021. Breeding new fruit varieties in the Philippines. Journal Article, 3204. https://www.ukdr.uplb.edu.ph/journal-articles/3204