Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Drinking water quality and risk of waterborne diseases in the rural mountainous area of Azad Kashmir Pakistan

Research Paper | December 1, 2013

| Download 1

Ali Akbar, Uzma Sitara, Shabir Ahmed Khan, Niaz Muhammad, Muhammad Iftikhar Khan, Yasir Hayat Khan, Saeed Ur Rehman Kakar

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.3( 12), 245-251, December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.12.245-251


IJB 2013 [Generate Certificate]


A study was conducted to evaluate drinking water safety at three different levels including sources, system and household in district Bagh, an earthquake affected area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan. Portable water testing kit (Oxfam-DelAgua) was used for the detection of thermo-tolerant fecal coliform (Escherichia coli). A total (n=254) number of drinking water samples were examined for the presence of fecal coliform. It was found that, 68.5% (174 out of 254) of the overall samples tested were contaminated with Escherichia coli. The 52% (40 out of 77) of the water samples at source level, whereas 69% (58 out of 84) of water sample collected from system and 71% (66 out of 93) at household level were found contaminated with Escherichia coli. It was concluded that unprotected drinking water sources, improper management of waste, vulnerable sewage and ignorance regarding health and hygiene are the main reason of water contamination in the area.


Copyright © 2013
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Drinking water quality and risk of waterborne diseases in the rural mountainous area of Azad Kashmir Pakistan

Akbar A, Anal KA. 2011. Food safety concerns and food-borne pathogens, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter. FUUAST Journal of Biology 1(1), 5-17.

Bancroft K, Nelson ET, Childers GW. 1989. Comparison of the presence-absence and membrane filter techniques for coliform detection in small, non-chlorinated water distribution systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55(2), 507-510.

Barrell RAE, Hunter PR, Nichols G. 2000. Microbiological standards for water and their relationship to health risk. Communicable Diseases and Public health 3(1), 8-13.

Ferretti E, Bonadonna L, Lucentini L, Libera SD, Semproni M, Ottaviani M. 2010. A case study of sanitary survey on community drinking water supplies after a severe (post-Tsunami) flooding event. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità 46(3), 236-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.4415/ANN_10_03_03

Gundry S, Wright J, Conroy R. 2004. A systematic review of the health outcomes related to household water quality in developing countries. Journal of Water and Health 2(1), 1-13.

Hamer DH, Simon J, Thea DM, Keusch G. 1998. Childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa, Harvard University, Harvard. 1-32.

Haydar S, Arshad M, Aziz JA. 2009. Evaluation of drinking water quality in urban areas of Pakistan: A case study of southern Lahore. Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 5, 16-23.

Huttly SR. 1990. The impact of inadequate sanitary condition on health in developing countries. World Health Statistics Quarterly 43, 118-126.

Joyce TM, Meguigan KG, Elmore-Meegan M, Conroy RM. 1996. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62(2), 399-402.

Kress M, Gifford G. 1984. Fecal coliform release from cattle fecal deposits. Water Recourses Bulletin 20(1), 61-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.17521688.1984.tb04642.x

Leeuwen FXR Van. 2000. Safe drinking water; the toxicologist’s approach. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38, 51-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00140-4

Lieverloo JHM van, Blokker JME, Medema G. 2007. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of distributed drinking water using faecal indicator incidence and concentrations. Journal of Water Health 5(1), 131-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2007.134

Lima JRO, Marques SG, Gonçalves AG, Filho NS, Nunes PC, Silva HS, Monteiro SG, Costa JML. 2005. Microbiological analyses of water from hemodialysis services in são luís, maranhão. Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 36, 103-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517838220050002000 01

Muhammad F, Ikram M, Khan S, Khan K, Shah SH, Badshah Z, Ahmad W, Shah SN. 2013. Flood disaster in Charasadda, Pakistan: Bacteriological examination of drinking water. International Journal of Biosciences 3(5), 51-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.5.51-59

Muhammad N, Bangush M, Khan AT. 2012. Microbial contamination in well water of temporary arranged camps: A health risk in northern Pakistan. Water Quality Exposure and Health 4(4), 209-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12403-012-0080-0

Nevondo TS, Cloete TE. 1999. Bacterial and chemical quality of water supply in the Dertig village settlement. Water SA 25(2), 215-220.

Nickson RT, McArthur JM, Shrestha B, Kyaw-Myint TO, Lowry D. 2005. Arsenic and other drinking water quality issues, Muzaffargarh district, Pakistan. Applied Geochemistry 20, 55-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2004.06.004

Oswald WE, Lescano AG, Bern C, Maritza MC, Lilia C, Robert HG. 2007. Fecal contamination of drinking water within Peri-urban households, Lima, Peru. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77(4), 699-704.

Oxfam-DelAgua. 2004. Oxfam-DelAgua portable water testing kit, users manual (version 4.1), revised, Univ. of Surrey, Marlborough, U.K.

Rosemann N. 2005. Drinking water crisis in Pakistan and the issue of bottled water the case of Nestlé’s ‘Pure Life’. Swiss coalition of development organizations Swissaid, catholic lenten fund bread for all, Helvetas Caritas, Interchurch aid, 1-37.

Shar AH, Kazi YF, Kanhar NA, Soomro IH, Zia SM, Ghumro PB. 2010. Drinking water quality in Rohri City, Sindh, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(42), 7102-7107. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.410

Sobsey DM. 2006. Drinking water and health research: a look to the future in the United States and globally.  Journal  of  Water  Health  4(1),  17-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2005.035

Tariq MI. 2013. Pakistan sanitation country paper. Cabinet   secretariat,   climate   change   division, government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan.

World   Health   Organization   and   United Nations  Children’s  Fund.  2000.  Global  water supply  and  sanitation  assessment  (report),  New York/Geneva. 1-80.