Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on growth attributes of NaCl stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B90068 genotype

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2017
Views (213) Download (5)

Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on growth attributes of NaCl stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B90068 genotype

Ikram-ul-Haq, Ghulam Yasin1, Nazia Parveen Gill2, Sajid Ali, Abdul Ghaffar
J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 6), 141-152, December 2017.
Certificate: JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Salinity is the big threat of drought as well as flooded areas for crop production. In this experiment, effects of urea fertilizer (50kg N ha-1) application on rate of vegetative growth and yield production of NaCl (0, 100 and 200mM) stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotype B90068 was assessed. High NaCl level decreased plant biomass, net CO2 assimilation (A) rate, K+ concentration and grain yields but Na+ and Cl-1 contents increased significantly especially in salt sensitive cultivar. With urea application, plant growth, photo-assimilation rates and plant yield was maximum in control plants as well as each increased than NaCl stressed plants (p≤0.05). It indicates that influence of urea fertilizer, which is playing a significant role in barley production even when grown in saline conditions. Among NaCl stressed plants, carotenoids were increased while chlorophyll contents were decrease significantly. A non-significant alteration in in Na+/K+ and K+/Cl, which were decreased with NaCl application while reversed under the influence of urea fertilizer. Transpiration (E) rate and sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations observed upward under NaCl stress than control plants, while down towards normal form with application of urea but gs (stomatal conductance) noted as reversed than E and Ci. Application of NaCl in root medium is decreasing plant growth and its final yield while influence of urea fertilizer reduces (p≤0.05) the deleterious effects of NaCl stress.


Abbas W, Ashraf M, Akram NA. 2010. Alleviation of salt-induced adverse effects in eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.) by glycinebetaine and sugarbeet extracts. Scientia Horticulturae 125, 188-195.

Abdelgadir EM, Fadul EM, Fageer EA, Ali EA. 2010. Response of wheat to nitrogen fertilizer at reclaimed high terrace salt-affected soils in Sudan. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences 6, 43-47. www.fspublishers.org/jass/past-issues/JASSVOL_ 6_NO_3/1.pdf

Absalan AA, Armin M, Asghripour MR, Karimi-Yazdi S. 2011. Effects of different forms of nitrogen application on yield response of corn under saline conditions. Advances in Environmental Biology 5(4), 719-724.

Agegnehu G, Ghizaw A, Sinebo W. 2006. Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in ethiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy 25(3), 202-207.

Akbari GE, Izadi-Darbandi A, Borzouei A. 2012. Effects of salinity on some physiological traits in wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivars. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 5(1), 1901-1906. www.indjst.org.

Ali Y, Aslam Z, Ashraf MY, Tahir GR. 2004. Effect of salinity on chlorophyll concentration, leaf area, yield and yield components of rice genotypes grown under saline environment. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 1(3), 221-225. www.bioline.org.br/pdf?st04027.

AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. www.sidalc.net/cgi-bin/wxis.exe/? IsisScript=agrissa.xis&method=post& -formato=2&cantidad =1&expresion=mfn=002093).

Arnon DI. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 24(1):1-15.

Ashraf MA, Ashraf M. 2012. Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: Photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(1), 53-64.

Ashrafi E, Razmjoo J, Zahedi M, Pessarakli M. 2014. Selecting alfalfa cultivars for salt tolerance based on some physiochemical traits. Agronomy Journal 106(5), 1758-1764.

Atkinson NJ, Urwin PE. 2012. The interaction of plant biotic and abiotic stresses from genes to the field. Journal of Experimental Botany 63(10), 3523-3544.

Azizian A, Sepaskhah AR. 2013. Maize response to water, salinity and nitrogen levels: physiological growth parameters and gas exchange. International Journal of Plant Production 8(1), 131-162.

Baethgen WE, Christianson CB, Lamothe AG. 1995. Nitrogen fertilizer effects on growth, grain yield, and yield components of malting barley. Field Crops Research 43(2–3), 87-99.

Baik BK, Ullrich SE. 2008. Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest. Journal of Cereal Science 48(2), 233-242.

Behrens JT. 1997. Principles and procedures of exploratory data analysis. Psychological Methods 2(2), 131-160. www.doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/1082-989X.2.2.131).

Belanger G, Richards JE. 2000. Dynamics of biomass and N accumulation of alfalfa under three N fertilization rates. Plant and Soil 219, 177-185.

Blanchard J. 1986. A history of the winnipeg grain research laboratory of the canadian grain commission, 1913 to 1979. Prairie Forum 11(2), 215-228.

Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C. 2009. photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: Regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of Botany 103(4), 551-560.

Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J, Rodrigues ML, Ricardo CPP, Osório ML, Carvalho I, Faria I, Pinheiro TC. 2002. How plants cope with water stress in the field, photosynthesis and growth. Annals of Botany 89, 907-916.

Chen S, Li J, Wang S, Hüttermann A, Altman A. 2001. Salt, nutrient uptake and transport, and aba of Populus euphratica a hybrid in response to increasing soil NaCl. Trees – Structure and Function 15(3), 186-194.

Chen Z, Newman I, Zhou M, Mendham N, Zhang G, Shabala S. 2005. Screening plants for salt tolerance by measuring K+ flux: A case study for barley. Plant Cell and Environment 28(10),1230-1246.

Cheng W, Nakajima Y, Sudo S, Akiyama H, Tsuruta H. 2002. N2O and NO emissions from a field of chinese cabbage as influenced by band application of urea or controlled-release urea fertilizers. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 63, 231-238.

Chu H, Hosen Y, Yagi K. 2007. NO, N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes in winter barley field of japanese andisol as affected by N fertilizer management. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39(1), 330-339.

Dawson IK, Russell J, Powell W, Steffenson B, Thomas WT, Waugh R. 2015. Barley: A translational model for adaptation to climate change. New Phytologist 206(3), 913-931.

Debouba M, Gouia H, Valadier MH, Ghorbel MH, Suzuki A. 2006. Salinity-induced tissue-specific diurnal changes in nitrogen assimilatory enzymes in tomato seedlings grown under high or low nitrate medium. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 44(5-6), 409-419.

Debouba M, Maâroufi-Dghimi H, Suzuki A, Ghorbel MH, Gouia H. 2007. Changes in growth and activity of enzymes involved in nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation in tomato seedlings in response to NaCl stress. Annals of Botany 99(6), 1143-51.

Desalegn T, Alemu G, Adella A, Debele T, Gonzalo J. 2016. Effect of lime and phosphorus fertilizer on acid soils and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) performance in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Experimental Agriculture 53, 432-444.

Desta B. 1987. Effect of liming and N and P fertilizers on grain yield of barley. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(1), 1-13.

Ebrahimian E, Bybordi A. 2011a. Exogenous silicium and zinc increase antioxidant enzyme activity and alleviate salt stress in leaves of sunflower. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 9(1), 422-427.

Ebrahimian E, Bybordi A. 2011b. Influence of different proportion of nitrate, ammonium and silicium on activity of antioxidant enzymes and some physiological traits in sunflower under conditions of salt stress. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 9(3-4), 1052-1058.

Eisechie HA, Rodriguez V. 1999. Does salinity inhibit alfalfa leaf growth by reducing tissue concentration of essential mineral nutrients. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 182(4), 273-278.

Esmaili E, Kapourchal SA, Malakouti MJ, Homaee M. 2008. Interactive effect of salinity and two nitrogen fertilizers on growth and composition of sorghum. Plant, Soil and Environment 54(12), 537-546.

Forster BP, Ellis RP, Moir J, Talamã V, Sanguineti MC, Tuberosa R, This D, Teulat-merah B, Ahmed I, Mariy SAEE, Bahri H, Elouahabi M, Zoumarou-wallis N, El-fellah M, Salem MB. 2004. Genotype and phenotype associations with drought tolerance in barley tested in North Africa. Annals of Applied Biology 144(2), 157-168. www.doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2004. tb00329.x.

Garg N, Chandel S. 2011. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, nitrogen fixation, and nutrient uptake in Cicer arietinum (L.) under salt stress. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 35(2), 205-214.

Geissler N, Hussin S, Koyro HW. 2009. Interactive effects of NaCl salinity and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and chemical composition of the potential cash crop halophyte Aster tripolium L. Environmental and Experimental Botany 65(2-3), 220-231.

Ghosh M, Singh SP. 2005. A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its byproducts. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 3(1), 1-18.

Giunta F, Motzo R, Deidda M. 2002. SPAD readings and associated leaf traits in durum wheat, barley and Triticale cultivars. Euphytica 125(2), 197-205.

Glibert PM, Harrison J, Heil C, Seitzinger S. 2006. Escalating worldwide use of urea – a global change contributing to coastal eutrophication. Biogeochemistry 77(3), 441-463.

Gomez-Becerra HF, Erdem, H., Yazici A., Tutus, Y., Torun, B., Ozturk, L. and Cakmak, I. 2010. Grain concentrations of protein and mineral nutrients in a large collection of spelt wheat grown under different environments. Journal of Cereal Science 52(3), 342-349.

Gujral HS, and Gaur S. 2005. Instrumental texture of chapati as affected by barley flour, glycerol monostearate and sodium chloride. International Journal of Food Properties 8(2), 377-385. www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-01-Mq0150.

Hariadi Y, Marandon K, Tian Y, Jacobsen SE, Shabala S. 2011. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels. Journal of Experimental Botany 62(1), 185-193.

Helal HM, Mengel K. 1979. Nitrogen metabolism of young barley plants as affected by NaCl-salinity and potassium. Plant and Soil 51(4), 457-462.

Henley S. 1983. Principles and procedure of statistics: A biometrical approach.

Hoagland DR, Arnon DI. 1950. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station 347,32. www.cabdirect.org/ abstracts/19500302257.html.

Hu Y, Burucs Z, Schmidhalter U. 2006. Short-term effect of drought and salinity on growth and mineral elements in wheat seedlings. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29(12), 2227-2243.

Hu YC, Schmidhalter U. 2005. Drought and salinity: A comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of plants. Journal Of Plant Nutrition And Soil Science-Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenernahrung Und Bodenkunde 168(4), 541-549.

Hussain S, Luro F, Costantino G, Ollitrault P, Morillon R. 2012. Physiological analysis of salt stress behaviour of citrus species and genera: Low chloride accumulation as an indicator of salt tolerance. South African Journal of Botany 81, 103-112.

James R, Von Caemmerer S, Condon GT, Zwart B, Munns R. 2008. Genetic variation in tolerance to the osmotic stress component of salinity stress in durum wheat. Functional Plant Biology 35, 111-123.

James RA, Munns R, von Caemmerer S, Trejo C, Miller C, Codon T. 2006. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the cellular and subcellular partitioning of Na+, K+ and Cl in salt-affected barley and durum wheat. Plant, Cell and Environment 29(12), 2185-2197.

Jarolimek W, Lewen A, Misgeld U. 1999. A furosemide-sensitive K+-Cl cotransporter counteracts Intracellular Cl accumulation and depletion in cultured rat midbrain neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience 19(12), 4695-4704.

Kanwal H, Ashraf M, Shahbaz M. 2011. Assessment of salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(6), 2693-2699. www.scopus.com/ inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84858026603& partner ID=40&md5=961e8392a05331c4204f7948ca9abb8c.

Kathy JW, Bachman S. 2016. State of the World’s Plants. www.stateofthe-worldsplants.com/report/ sotwp_2016.pdf.

Khosravifar S, Yarnia M, Benam MBK, Moghbeli AHH. 2008. Effect of potassium on drought tolerance in potato cv., Agria. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 6(3-4), 236-241.

Kiani-Pouya A, Rasouli F. 2014. The potential of leaf chlorophyll content to screen bread-wheat genotypes in saline condition. Photosynthetica 52(2), 288-300.

Kolovos A. 2010. Everything in its place: Efficient geostatistical analysis with SAS/STAT. SAS Global Forum pp.1-18.

Lichtenthaler Hk, Wellburn AR. 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions 11, 591-592. www-06.all-portland.net/bst/011/0591/0110591.pdf).

Ligaba A, Katsuhara M. 2010. Insights into the salt tolerance mechanism in barley (Hordeum vulgare) from comparisons of cultivars that differ in salt sensitivity.” Journal of Plant Research 123(1), 105-118.

Lipiec J, Doussan C, Nosalewicz A, Kondracka K. 2013. Effect of drought and heat stresses on plant growth and yield: A review. International Agrophysics 27(4), 463-477. www.degruyter.com/view/j/intag.2013.27.issue-4/intag-2013-0017/intag-2013-0017.xml.

Loutfy IEJ, Aref IM, Ahmed AIM. 2008. Eucalyptus intertexta seedlings to irrigation with saline water. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4, 825-834.

Maas EV, Hoffman GJ. 1977. Crop salt tolerance – current assessment. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division 103(2), 115-134.

Maggio A, Hasegawa PM, Bressan R, Consiglio MF, Joly RJ. 2001. Unravelling the functional relationship between root anatomy and stress tolerance. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 28(10), 999-1004.

Maggio A, Raimondi G, Martino A, Pascale SD. 2007. Salt stress response in tomato beyond the salinity tolerance threshold. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59(3), 276-782.

Mahajan S, Mahajan S, Tuteja N, Tuteja N. 2005. Cold, salinity and drought stresses: An overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 444, 139-158. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16309626.

Morshedi A, Farahbakhsh H. 2012. The role of potassium and zinc in reducing salinity and alkalinity stress conditions in two wheat genotypes. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 58(4), 371-384.

Munns R, Tester M. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59(1), 651-681. www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev.-arplant.59.032607.092911.

Munns R. 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 25(2), 239-250. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 11841667.

Munns R. 2005. Genes and salt tolerance: Bringing them together. New Phytologist 167(3), 645-663.

Murtaza B, Murtaza G, Saqib M, Khaliq A. 2014. Efficiency of nitrogen use in rice-wheat cropping system in salt-affected soils with contrasting texture. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 51(2), 431-441.

Nandy P, Das S, Ghose M, Spooner-Hart R. 2007. Effects of salinity on photosynthesis, leaf anatomy, ion accumulation and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency in five Indian mangroves. Wetlands Ecology and Management 15(4), 347-357.

Ozturk A, Caglar O, Sahin F. 2003. Yield response of wheat and barley to inoculation of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria at various levels of nitrogen fertilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 166(2), 262-266.

Pak V, Nabipour AM, Meskarbashee M. 2009. Effect of salt stress on chlorophyll content, fluorescence, Na+ and K+ ions content in rape plants (Brassica napus L.). Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 3, 28-37.

Parida AK, Das AB, Das P. 2002. NaCl stress causes changes in photosynthetic pigments, proteins, and other metabolic components in the leaves of a true mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, in hydroponic cultures. Journal of Plant Biology 45(1), 28-36. www.link.springer.com/10.1007/BF03030429.

Parida AK, Das AB. 2004. Effects of NaCl stress on nitrogen and phosphorous metabolism in a true mangrove Bruguiera parviflora grown under hydroponic culture. Journal of Plant Physiology 161(8), 921-928.

Parida AK, Das AB. 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 60(3), 324-349.

Pask A, Pietragalla J, Mullan D. 2012. Physiological Breeding II: A field guide to wheat phenotyping. www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10. 1002/cbdv.200490137 /abstract.

Prystupa P, Slafer GA, Savin R. 2003. Leaf apearance, tillering and their coordination in response to NxP fertilization in barley. Plant and Soil 255(2), 587-594.

Rahnama A, James RA, Poustini K, Munns R. 2010. Stomatal conductance as a screen for osmotic stress tolerance in durum wheat growing in saline soil. Functional Plant Biology 37(3), 255-263.

Saeed AM, Ashraf M, Akram NA. 2009. Effectiveness of potassium sulfate in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects on different physio-biochemical attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 204(6), 471-483.

Salamini F, Ozkan H, Brandolini A, Schäfer-Pregl R, Martin W. 2002. Genetics and geography of wild cereal domestication in the near east. Nature Reviews Genetics 3(6), 429-441.

Shabala S, Munns R. 2012. Salinity stress: Physiological constraints and adaptive mechanisms. Plant Stress Physiology p. 59-93. www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20123151319%5 www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84875112050&partnerID=40&md5=0ac9bad5e25ae4c9dbad962c091a6f2b).

Shahbaz M, Ashraf M, Akram NA, Hanif A, Hameed S, Joham S, Rehman R. 2011. Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthetic capacity, proline content and ion accumulation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33(4), 1113-1122.

Shahbaz M, Zia B. 2011. Does exogenous application of glycinebetaine through rooting medium alter rice (Oryza sativa L.) mineral nutrient status under saline conditions. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 84(1), 54-60.

Simonne H, Simonne EH, Eitenmiller RR, Mills H, Cresman CP. 1997. Could the Dumas method replace the Kjeldahl digestion for nitrogen and crude protein determinations in foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 73(1), 39-45.

Sudhir P, Murthy SDS. 2004. Effects of salt stress on basic processes of photosynthesis. Photosynthetica 42(4), 481-486.

Sultana N, Ikeda T, Kashem MA. 2001. Effect of foliar spray of nutrient solutions on photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation and yield in seawater-stressed rice. Environmental and Experimental Botany 46(2), 129-140.

Tabatabaei S, Ehsanzadeh P. 2016. Photosynthetic pigments, ionic and antioxidative behaviour of hulled tetraploid wheat in response to NaCl. Photosynthetica 54(3), 340-350.

Tavakkoli E, Fatehi F, Coventry S, Rengasamy P, McDonald GK. 2011. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl ions on barley growth under salinity stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 62(6), 2189-2203.

Tiwari JK, Munshi A, Kumar R, Pandey RN, Arora A, Bhat J, Sureja A. 2010. Effect of salt stress on cucumber: Na+-K+ Ratio, osmolyte concentration, phenols and chlorophyll content. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 32(1), 103-114.

Widodo PJH, Newbigin E, Tester M, Bacic A, Roessner U. 2009. Metabolic responses to salt stress of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, sahara and clipper, which differ in salinity tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(14), 4089-4103.

Witzel K, Matros A, Strickert M, Kaspar S, Peukert M, Mühling KH, Börner A, Mock HP. 2014. Salinity stress in roots of contrasting barley genotypes reveals time-distinct and genotype-specific patterns for defined proteins. Molecular Plant 7(2), 336-355.

Wu D, Cai S, Chen M, Ye L, Chen Z, Zhang H, Dai F, Wu F, Zhang G. 2013. Tissue metabolic responses to salt stress in wild and cultivated barley. PLoS ONE 8(1), e55431.

Yeo AR, Flowers TJ. 1986. Salinity resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a pyramiding approach to breeding varieties for saline soils. Functional Plant Biology 13(1), 161-173.

Yordanov I, Velikova V, Tsonev T. 2003. Plant responses to drought and stress tolerance. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology Special Issue p.187-206.

Zhang JL, Shi H. 2013. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of plant salt tolerance. Photosynthesis Research 115(1), 1-22. www.link.springer.com/10.1007/s11120-013-9813-6.

Zhao GQ, Ma BL, Ren CZ. 2007. Growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion content of naked oat in response to salinity. Crop Science 47(1),123-131.

Ziaf K, Amjad M, Pervez MA, Iqbal Q, Rajwana IA, Ayyub M. 2009. Evaluation of different growth and physiological traits as indices of salt tolerance in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(4), 1797-1809.