Effective antifungal and antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. wild-growing in Algeria

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/10/2017
Views (266) Download (8)

Effective antifungal and antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. wild-growing in Algeria

Hicham Boughendjioua
Int. J. Biosci.11( 4), 164-172, October 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


The food industry is constantly challenged by consumers seeking for increasingly healthy foods and less use of synthetic chemical additives such as pesticides or preservatives. In this context the aim of the present work was to study the antifungal activity of Laurel essential oilin different treatments against two phytopathogenic fungus: Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxypouim. These strains are among the most contaminating genera of mycotoxin dry and mainstream producers. The extraction was carried out by hydrodistillation and molecular characterization by GC/MS. The essential oil of the Laurus nobilis L. leaves shows a great inhibition of mycelial growth (in vitro). The 1,8-Cineole (49.43 %), Terpinyl acetate (14.90 %)and Sabinene (09,88%) possess the most important inhibitory powers. The essential oil was also subjected to a biological screening for its possible antioxidant activities by means of DPPH radical scavenging test and b-carotene/linoleic acid test, the sample tested showed a good antioxidant activity in comparison with the positive control (Ascorbic acid and Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT)).


Amiri A, Dugas R, Pichot AL, Bompeix G. 2008. In vitro and in vivo activity of eugenol oil (Eugenia caryophylata) against four important postharvest apple pathogens. International Journal of Food Microbiology 126, 13-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.04.022

Arnusch CJ, Ulm H, Josten M, Shadkchan Y, Osherov N, Sahl HG, Shai Y. 2012.  Ultrashort Peptide Bioconjugates Are Exclusively Antifungal Agents and Synergize with Cyclodextrin and Amphotericin B. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56(1), 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00468-11.

Ben Mansoura M, Balti R, Rabaoui L, Bougatef A, Guerfel M. 2013. Chemical composition, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from south Tunisian Ajuga pseudoiva Rob. Lamiaceae. Process Biochemistry 48(4), 723-729.

Bhuiyan MNI, Varshney VK, Shiam C, Varshney Tomar A, Akter F. 2011. Composition of essential oil of the leaf and inflorescence of Pogostemon benghalensis (Burm.f.) Kuntze. International Research Journal of Plant Science 2 (9), 271-275.

Biondi D, Cianci P, Geraci C. 1993. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils from sicilian aromatic plants. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 8, 331-337.

Bouzouita N, Nafti A, Chaabouni M, Lognay G, Marlier M, Zghoulli S, Thonart P. 2001. Chemical compositions of Laurus nobilis oil from Tunisia. Journal Essential Oil Research 13, 116-117.

Burits M, Bucar F. 2000. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytotherapy Research 14, 323-328.

Burt S. 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods, a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology 94 (3), 223-253.

Ceylan E, Fung YCD. 2004. Antimicrobial activity of spices. Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology 12, 1-55.

Clevenger JF. 1928. Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association17, 346-1.

Cuendet M, Hostettmann K, Potterat O, Dyatmiko W. 1997. Iridoid glucosides with free radical scavenging properties from Fagraea blumei. Helvetica Chimica Acta 4, 1144-1152.

Dall’Acqua S, Cervellati R, Speroni E, Costa S, Guerra MC, Stella L, Greco E, Innocenti G. 2009.Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Laurus nobilis L. leaf infusion. Journal of medicinal food 12(4), 869-76. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2008.0119

Dapkevicius A, Venskutonis R, Van Beek TA, Linssen JPH. 1998. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained different isolation procedures from some aromatic herbs grown in Lithuania. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 77, 140-146.

Derwich E, Benziane Z, Boukir A. 2009. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Leaves Essential Oil of Laurus nobilis from Morocco. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3(4), 3818-3824.

Flamini G, Tebano M, Cioni P, Ceccarini L, Simone S, Longo I. 2007. Comparison between the conventional method of extraction of essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. and a novel method which uses microwaves applied in situ, without resorting to an oven. Journal of Chromatography A 1143, 36-40.

Goudjil MB, Ladjel S, Bencheikh SE, Zighmi S, Hamada DJ. 2015. Study of the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Algerian Laurus nobilis Lauraceae. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 7(1), 379-385.

Hamrouni L, Hanana M, Amri I, Romane A, Gargouri S, Jamoussi B. 2014. Allelopathic effects of essential oils of Pinus halepensis Miller: chemical composition and study of their antifungal and herbicidal activities. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 48(2), 1-14.

Hokwerda H, Ros R, Tattje D, Malingre T. 1982. Composition of essential oils of Laurusnobilis L. nobilis var. angustifolia and Laurusazorica. Planta Medica 44, 116-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971415.

Huergo H, Retamar J. 1978. El aceiteesencial de bay (Laurus nobilis L). Rivistaitaliana EPPOS 60, 635-637.

Kocić-Tanackov SD, Dimić GR. 2013. Antifungal activity of essential oils in the control of food-borne fungi growth and mycotoxin biosynthesis in food. Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: science, technology and education (A. Méndez-Vilas, Ed.) 838-849.

Laplace JP. 2006. Agriculture et alimentation Réflexions croisées. Cahiers Agricultures 15(4), 375-78.

Mady A, Ismail Al-Zahraa M, Darwish, Nemmat A. 2014. Hussein & Soumia M. Darwish. In vivo Effect of Essential Oils from Laurus nobilis, Anethum Graveolens and Mentha piperita on Mycobiota Associated with Domiati Cheese During Storage. Food and Public Health 4(3), 110-122.

Messgo-Moumene S, Li Y, Bachir K, Houmani Z, Bouznad Z, Chemat F. 2014. Antifungal power of citrus essential oils against potato late blight causative agent. Journal of Essential Oil Research 27 (2), 169-176.

Nielsen PV, Rios R. 2000. Inhibition of fungal growth on bread, by volatile components from spices and herbs, and the possible application in active packaging, with special emphasis on mustard essential oil. International Journal of Food Microbiology 60, 219-229.

Omidbeygi M, Barzegar M, Hamidi Z, Naghdibadi H. 2007. Antifungal activity of thyme, summer savory and clove essential oils against Aspergillus flavusin liquid medium and tomato paste. Food Control 18, 1518-23.

Ozcan M, Chalchat J. 2005. Effect of different locations on the chemical composition of essential oils of bay (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves growing wild in Turkey. Journal of Medicinal Food 8, 408-411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2005.8.408.

Pitt JI, Hocking AAD. 2009. Fungi and Food Spoilage, 3rd edition, Springer Science plus Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA 524.

Politeo O, Jukic M, Milos M. 2007. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of free volatile aglycones from bay (Laurus nobilis L.) compared to its essential oil. Croatia Chem. Acta 80, 121-126.

Quezel P, Santa S. 1962. Nouvelles Flores d’Algérie et des Régions Désertiques Méridionales. CNRS, Paris. Éditions du centre national de la recherche scientifique 2, 793.

Racowski I, Foramiglio VL, Teodoro JA, Freire VT. 2016. Antifungal Activity of Infusions from Fresh Oregano, Laurel and Rosemary Leaves and Their Commercial Essential Oils against Acremonium sp. Journal of Microbiology Research. 6 (2), 35-39. www.dx.doi.org/10.5923/j.microbiology.20160602.02.

Ramos C, Teixeira B, Batista I, Matos O, Serrano C, Neng NR, Nogueira JMF, Nunes ML, Marques A. 2012. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal. Natural Product Research 26(06), 518- 529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.531478.

Riaz M, Ashraf CM, Chaudhary FM. 1989. Studies of the essential oil of the Pakistani Laurus nobilis Linn in different seasons. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 32, 33 D35.

Ruberto G, Barata MT. 2000.  Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model system. Food Chemistry 69, 167-174.

Saab AM, Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Gambari R, Menichini F, Esseily F, Menichini F. 2012. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) leaves and seeds essential oils against K562 human chronic myelogenousleukaemia cells. Natural Product Research 26(18), 1741-1745. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.608674

Sameza ML, Boat MAB, Nguemezi ST, Mabou LCN, JazetDongmo PM, Boyom FF, Menut C. 2014. Potential use of Eucalyptus globules essential oil against Phytophthora colocasiae the causal agent of taro leaf blight. European Journal of Plant Pathology (1402), 243-250.

Simic A, Sokovic M, Ristic M, Grujic-Jovanovic S, Vukojevic J, Marin P. 2004. The Chemical Composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities. Phytotherapy Research 1, 713-717.

Simic M, Kundakovic T, Kovacevic N. 2003. Preliminary assay on the antioxidative activity of Laurus nobilis extracts. Fitoterapia74, 613-616.

Singh G, Marimuthu R, De Heluani CS, Catalan C. 2005. Antimicrobial and antioxidant Potentials of essential oil and acetone extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Aril part). Journal of Food Science 70, M141-M148.

Sudhakar P, Latha P, Sreenivasulu Y, Reddy B VB, Hemalatha TM, Balakrishna M, Reddy KR. 2009. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus colonization and aflatoxin (AfB1) in peanut by methyleugenol. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 47(1), 63-67.

Suhr IK, Nielsen VP. 2003. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spolage fungi. Journal of Applied Micrbiology 94, 665-674.

Tajkarimi MM, Ibrahim SA, Cliver DO. 2010. Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control 21(9), 1199-1218.

Verdian-rizi M, Hadjiakhoondi A. 2008. Essential Oil Composition of Laurus nobilis L. of Different Growth Stages Growing in Iran. Verlag der Zeitschriftfür Naturforschung, Tübingen 785-788.

Xing Y, Li X, Xu Q, Yun J, Lu Y. 2010. Antifungal activities of cinnamon oil against Rhizopusnigricans, Aspergillus flavusand Penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo fruit test. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45, 1837-1842.

Zuzarte M, Gon㧠Alves M J, Cavaleiro C, Dinis AM, Canhoto JM, Salgueiro LGR. 2009. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav. Chemistry & biodiversity 6, 1283-1292.