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Effectiveness of extension services for food and nutrition security through integrated crop-livestock farming systems: A case study of smallholder farmers in Rarieda Sub County, Kenya

Alex Okwama, Arnold Watako, Peter Bulli

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Int. J. Biosci.20(3), 287-294, March 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.3.287-294


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Integrated Crop-Livestock Farming Systems (ICLFS) are globally recognized for their contributions to improving agricultural sustainability. These systems also play a big role in conservation and Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) since they reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, thus assisting in coping with the effects of climate change. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of extension services in achieving food and nutrition security by farmers practicing integrated crop-livestock farming systems. The data were analysed using both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The frequency over which farmers receive their extension services indicated that the majority never received them, followed by farmers who annually received extension service. From the findings, mass media and village meetings were statistically significant in extension delivery modes. The results indicated a strong and positive correlation between the extension service provision and performance. The standardized regression coefficients revealed that for every unit increase of extension service increases performance and were statistically significant. Therefore, this study recommends a refinement and improvement of extension services to impact on integrated farming system positively.


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Effectiveness of extension services for food and nutrition security through integrated crop-livestock farming systems: A case study of smallholder farmers in Rarieda Sub County, Kenya

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