Effectiveness of various salinity on leaf growth of Gazania

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2016
Views (446) Download (14)

Effectiveness of various salinity on leaf growth of Gazania

Iftikhar Ahmad, Sikandar Amanullah
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.9( 3), 1-9, September 2016.
Certificate: IJAAR 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Salt stress is induced by Nacl and it minimizes the growth owing to variation in interior plant structure. The present work was designed in line to investigate the behavior of Gazania harlequin (L.) seedlings were raised with dissimilar salt combinations (25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm & 100 ppm of NaCl solution). The CRD experiment with 4 repetitions was done. The NaCl treatments were repeated in 4 times with 20 days interval totally for 80 days after transplanting in pots. Anatomical observations were recorded by the microscope of in Nacl affected growth leaf. The results illustrated that salinity levels had negative effect on anatomical characters as (xylem region, phloem region, cortex region, epidermis region and density of leaf lamina). So, it is concluded from study that control treatment (without salinity effect) showed improved outcome comparatively others treatments which were under saline situation. As the salinity increases ultimately it affects leaf anatomy of plant.


Akram M, Akhtar S, Javed IH, Wahid A, Rasul E. 2002. Anatomical attributes of different wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions/varieties to NaCl salinity. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4, 166-168.

Anonymous. 2005. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of food, Agriculture and livestock, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Anonymous.    2009.    Economic    Survey.    2009. Minister of Finance, Government of Pakistan 3, 17-19.

Ashraf M. 2002. Salt tolerance of cotton: Some new advances. Critical Review in Plant Sciences 21, 1-30.

Ashraf M, Yasmin N. 1997. Responses of some arid zone grasses to brackish water. Der Tropenlandwirt, Beitrage, zur tropischen landwirschaft and veterinarmedizine. 98(1), 3-12.

Azooz  MM,  Shaddad  MA, Abdel-Latef AA. 2004. The accumulation and compartmentation of proline in relation to salt tolerance of three sorghum cultivars. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 9, 1-8.

Barret-Lennard EG. 2003. The interaction between water logging and salinity in higher plants: Causes, consequences and implications. Plant and Soil. 253, 35-54.

Baum SF, Tran PN, Silk WK. 2000. Effects of salinity on xylem structure and water use in growing leaves of sorghum. New Phytologist. 146, 119–127.

Bry EA, Bailey-Serres J, Weretinlnyk E. 2000. Responses to a biotic stress, in: W. Gruissem, B. Buchannan, R. Jones (Eds). Biochem. Mol. Biol. Plants. America Society of Plant Physiologists, Rock Ville 1158-1249 p.

Cornish K, King AI, Reid MS, Paul JL. 1985. Role of ABA in stress induced water loss from potted chrysanthemum plants Acta Horticulture. 167: 381-386.

Datta SK, Som J. 1973. Note on the effect of salinity on the structural changes in the stem of rice varieties. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 43, 614-617.

De Villiers AJ, Von Teichman I, Van Rooyen MW, Theron GK. 1995. Salinity-induced changes in anatomy, stomatal counts and photosynthetic rate of Atriplex semibaccata R. Br. South Africa Journal of Botany. 62, 270-276.

Devitt DA, Morris RL. 1987. Morphological response of flowering annualsto salinity. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Sciences. 112, 951-955.

Edward FG, Howe T. 1999. Response of Plants under stress condition. Horticulture and Crop Science. 2, 399-412.

Ellis RA, Roberts EH. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Science and Technology. 9, 373-409.

FAOSTAT. 2008. http./www.fao.org/economic/ess/publications studies/statistical yearbook/fao-tatisticalyearbook-2007-2008/g-human-welfare/en/.

Goncharova EA, Dobrenkova LG. 1981. Functional role of anatomical changes instrawberry in the course of adaptation to drought and salinity. Bulletin of Applied Botany, of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 71, 100-108.

Goncharova EA, Dobrenkova LG. 1981. Functional role of anatomical changes in strawberry in the course of adaptation to drought and salinity. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 71: 100-108.

Hameed M, Ashraf M, Naz N, Al-Qurainy F. 2010. Anatomical adaptations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers., from the salt range pakistan, to salinity stress. i.e root and stem anatomy. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 42(1), 279-289.

Hayward HB. 1941. Anatomical and physiological response of the tomato to varying concentrations of sodium chloride, Sodium Sulphate and nutrient solutions. The Botanical Gazet. 102, 437-462.

Huang CX, Van Steveninck RFM. 1990. Salinity induced structural changes in meristematic cells of barley roots. New Phytologist. 15, 17-22.

Hussein MM, Abd El-Kader AA, Kady KA, Youssef RA, Alva Ak. 2010. Sorghum response to foliar application of phosphorus and potassium with saline water irrigation. Journal of Crop Improvement. 24, 1-23.

Hu Y, Schmidhalter U. 2005. Spatial distributions and net deposition rates of mineral elements in the elongating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf under saline soil conditions. Planta, 204, 212-219.

Imam RM, Kandil SA, Abo El-Khair MSA, Abd El Halim S. 1995. Growth parameters, metabolic changes and productivity of wheat plants as affected by uniconazole treatments under water stress conditions. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 10(4), 12-27.

Jaleel CA, Gopi R, Manivannan P, Panneerselvam R. 2007. Antioxidative potentials as a protective mechanism in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Plants under salinity stress. Turkish Journal of Botany. 31, 245-251.

Johansen DA. 1940.  Plant  Microtechnique.  MC. Graw. Hill Book Company New York.

Lawlor DW. 2002. Limitation to photosynthesis in water stressed leaves: stomata vs. metabolism and the role of ATP. Annals of Botany. 89, 1-15.

Lorenzo HC, Ruano JM. 2000. Effects of sodium on mineral nutrition in rose Plants. 137(1), 65-72.

Martinez-Beltran J, Manzur CL. 2005. Overview of the salinity problem in the world and FAO strategies to address the problem, Proceedings of the international society forum, Riverside, California, 311-313.

Meir AA, 1967. The effect of chlorine salinity on growth of bean leaves in thickness and in area. Israel Journal of Botany. 16, 115-125.

Meyer FH, Hoster HR. 1978. Roadside salt damage to trees in Hanover. Gartenament 29(3), 165-170.

Mills D. 1989. Differential response of various tissues of Asparagus officinalis to sodium chloride. Journal of Experimental Botany. 40, 485-91.

Muthukumarasamy M, Panneerselvam R. 1997. Amelioration of NaCl stress by triadimefon in peanut seedlings. Plant Growth Regulator 22, 157-162.

Nadejda Z, Atanassova B. 2008. Effect of salt stress on growth and flowering of ornamental annual species. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 23, 178-189.

Nadia MA. 1998. Productivity of sunflower crop under irrigation with salinized water condition. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agric.Zagazig University.

Nieman RH. 1962. Some effects of sodium chloride on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of twelve crop plants. Botanical Gazette. 123, 279-285.

Pimmongkol A, Terapongtanakhon S, Udonsirichakhon K. 2002. Anatomy of salt-and non-salt-tolerant rice treated with NaCl. In: 28th Congr. Science and Technology of Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand.

Pitman, Lauchli. 2002. Germination and seedling emergence of primed tomato and asparagus seeds under adverse conditions. Horticultural Science 26, 1160-1162.

Poliakoff MA. 1975. Morphological and anatomical changes in plants as a response to salinity stress. In A palzakoff-Mayber.J. Gate, eds. Plants in saline environments (Ecological studies 15). Springer-Veriag. New York. 97-117.

Poljakoff-Mayber A. 1988. Ecological-physiological studies on the responses of higher plants to salinity and drought. Arid Zone Research. 6, 163-183.

Rengasamy P. 2006. World salinization with emphasis on Australia. Journal of Experimental Botany 57, 1017–1023.

Rutland RB. 1972. Salt induced stress as a determinant of flower quality and longitivity in chrysanthemum. Horticultural Science 7(1), 57-59.

Sahi A. 2006. Bio saline. A biotechnological break through in scientists find ways to live with salinity. Country water action, Asian Development bank. Pakistan.

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. 1980. Statistical Methods (7th Ed.). Ames, lowa: lowa State University Press.

Soha El-sayed MAK. 2006. Physiological studies on sesame plants grown under saline water irrigation conditions. Ph.D.Thesis, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

Strogonov BP. 1964. Physiological basis of salt tolerant of plants (as affected by various types of salinity) Akad Nauk SSSR.Translated from Russian. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. 73-97.

Steel RGG, Torrie JH, Dickey DA. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company Incorporation., New York.

Tanji KK. 2002. Salinity in the soil environments in lauchli a and uluttge (eds.) salinity environment plants molecules. kluwer, Dordrecht. 21-51.

Vicki AF, Chan R. 2008. Phylogeny of the Spiny African Daisies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48(1), 47-60.

Wu G, Zhang C, Chu LY, Shao HB. 2007. Responses of higher plants to abiotic stress an agricultural sustainable development. Journal of Plant Interctions 2(3), 135-147.

Wignarajah K, Hjennigs D, Handly JF. 1975. The effect of salinity on growth of Phaseolus valgaris L.1.Anatomial changes in the first trifoliate leaf. Annals of Botany 39, 1029-1038

Winter E. 1988. Salt-induced hypodermal transfer cells in roots Prosopis farcta and ion distribution within young plants. Botany 101, 174-81.