Effects of nitrogen sources and their split application on some soil properties and tissue nitrogen and sulfur content of rice in Gambella, Ethiopia

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Research Paper 01/09/2012
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Effects of nitrogen sources and their split application on some soil properties and tissue nitrogen and sulfur content of rice in Gambella, Ethiopia

Shiferaw Nesgea, Heluf Gebrekidan, J. J. Sharma, Tareke Berhe
J. Bio. Env. Sci.2( 9), 45-59, September 2012.
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Soil and tissue testing are the most reliable ways to assess soil nutrient status to determine fertilizer needs of crop plants. Thus, this field experiment was conducted to study the effect of N fertilizer sources [NH4NO3 (34% N), (NH4)2SO4 (21% N + 24% S) and CO(NH2)2 (46% N)], and their split application (½ at sowing + ½ at tillering, ⅓ at sowing + ⅓ at tillering + ⅓ at panicle initiation, ½ at sowing + ½ at panicle initiation, and ½ at tillering + ½ at panicle initiation) on soil OC, pH, N, P, K and S and tissue N and S contents of NERICA-3 rice (Oryza sativa x Oryza glaberrima) for two years (2008-2009) under the climate conditions of Gambella, Ethiopia. The experiment was laidout in a RCBD replicated thrice. The soil characters studied and rice tissue N was significantly influenced by cropping year. The effects of N sources on soil pH, N, K, S and tissue N were significant while split N application had significant effect on soil pH, P, tissue N and S contents. The interaction effects of cropping year and N sources were significant on soil pH, N, S and tissue N only; while cropping year and split application of N interaction significantly influenced soil OC, N, P and K. The N sources and its split application on soil pH, P, K and tissue N; and year by N sources by application time on soil pH and K among the soil and rice tissue parameters studied. The N sources and their split application showed a negative effect on soil OC and N contents. However, split application of N as ½ at sowing + ½ at tillering recorded significantly the highest soil OC content (3.19%). The effects of year by N sources and year by N application time showed significantly the highest soil total N content (each 0.43%) with CO(NH2)2 and N sources applied as ½ at tillering + ½ at panicle initiation. NH4NO3 applied as ½ at sowing + ½ at tillering showed the highest soil pH (7.59) while (NH4)2SO4 soil S. The highest soil P value (858.05 mg P kg-1 soil) found with N sources applied as ½ at sowing + ½ at panicle initiation while (NH4)2SO4 ½ at sowing + ½ at tillering and NH4NO3 ½ at sowing + ½ at panicle initiation were obtained significantly higher soil K content than other treatment combination. The highest tissue N content (1.91%) obtained with applied NH4NO3 as ⅓ at sowing + ⅓ at tillering + ⅓ at panicle initiation.


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