Effects of the mixed probiotic microalgae-bacteria, Skeletonema costatum-Bacillus subtilis, on Stress tolerance and innate immunity prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating in Penaeus monodon larvae

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/05/2014
Views (201) Download (3)

Effects of the mixed probiotic microalgae-bacteria, Skeletonema costatum-Bacillus subtilis, on Stress tolerance and innate immunity prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating in Penaeus monodon larvae

Gholamreza Rafiee, Ahmad-ali Pourbabaee, Ali Agharokh, Mehran Avakhkeysami
J. Bio. Env. Sci.4( 5), 273-284, May 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Shrimp farming like other industries, requires modern methods and techniques for increasing production yield. Novel technologies and other sciences such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and microbiology have important role in fishes aquaculture activities. Larvae of P. monodon were fed by conjugated B. subtilis and S. costatum with a high total protein rate. In this study tried to use a microalgea as a carrier for beneficial bacteria. These fed larvae by this carrier food showed responses to tolerance tests and prophenoloxidase I and II (proPO I & II) expression rates well in compare to the control samples. The analysis of immune-related gene expression of prophenoloxidase I and II of monodon post larvae were increased after being fed with 107 and 109 cellml-1 significantly. It is therefore said that 109 cellml-1 concentration of algae-bacteria can be very suitable for shrimp larva breeding. Because comparing the expression rates with control sample, proPO I and II genes of treated 109 cellml-1 sample were recorded 2.018 and 12.008 fold respectively.


Bendschneider K , Robinson RJ. 1952. A new spectrometric method for the determination of nitrite in the seawater 11, 87-96.

Bower CE, Bidwell JP. 1978. Ionization of ammonia in seawater: effects of temperature, pH and salinity 35, 1012-1016.

Cerenius L, Söderhäll K. 2004. The prophenoloxidase-activating system in invertebrates. 198, 116-126.

Cerenius L, 2010. Proteolytic cascades and their involvement in invertebrate immunity. 35, 575-583. HYPERLINK http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibs.2010.04.006   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibs.2010.04.006

Cerenius L, Lee BL, Soderhall K. 2008. The proPO-system: pros and cons for its role in invertebrate immunity 29, 263-271. HYPERLINK http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2008.02.009  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2008.02.009

Decamp O, Moriarty DJW, Lavens P. 2008. Probiotics for shrimp larviculture: review of field data from Asia and Latin America. Aquac Res 39, 334-338. 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01664.x

farzanfar A. 2006. The use of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture. 2006, Vol. 297.

Flegel TW. 2008. Shrimp disease control: past,present and future. In: Bondad-Reantaso, M.G., Mohan, C.V., Crumlish, M.,Subasinghe, R.P. (Eds.), 355-378.

Gatesoupe FJ. 1999. The use of probiotics in aquaculture 180, 147-165. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00187-8” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00187-8

Iwanaga Si, Bok LL. 2005. Recent advances in the innate immunity of invertebrate animals 38, 128-150.

Jiravanichpaisal P, Lee BL, Söderhäll K. 2006. Cell-mediated immunity in arthropods: Hematopoiesis, coagulation, melanization and opsonization 211, 213-236. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2005.10.015″\t”doilink”  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2005.10.015

Keysami MA, Saad CR, Sijam K, Daud HM, Alimon AR. 2007. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on growth development and survival of postlarvae Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) 13, 131-136. 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2007.00463.x

Kuan FU, Liu CH, Winton C. 2010. Effects of the probiotic B. Subtilis E20, on the survival, development stress tolerance and immune status of white shrimp L. Vannamei 28, 837-844. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2010.01.012” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2010.01.012

Lai CY, Cheng W, Kuo CM. 2005.  Molecular cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei 18, 417-430. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.10.004” \t     “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.10.004

Lemaitre B, Hoffmann J. 2007. The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster 25, 697-743.

Li E. 2008. Acute toxicity of boron to juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at two salinities 278, 175-178. HYPERLINK http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.03.022  \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /j.aquaculture.2008.03.022

Liu CH, Chiu CS, Lin PL, Wang SW. 2009. Improvement in the growth performance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by a protease producing probiotic Bacillus subtilis E20 from natto 107, 1031-1041. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2010.01.012” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /j.fsi.2010.01.012

Liu K. 2010. Effects of the probiotic, B. subtilis E20 on the survival, development, stress tolerance and immune status of white shrimp L. vannamei larvae 28, 837-844.

Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method. Jou. Methods 25(4), 402-408.

Maningas MB. 2008. Essential function of transglutaminase and clotting protein in shrimp immunity 45, 1269–1275.

Maw-Sheng Y. 2009. A second proPO present in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and expression of the proPOs during a Vibrio alginolyticus injection, molt stage, and oral sodium alginate ingestionFish. 49-55.

Nayak S, Ajay K, Meena A, Sreepada N. 2011. Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3. 107(2), 168-172. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2011. 04.001” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip. 2011.04.001

Reichelt JL,  Baumann L. 1973. Taxonomy of the marine luminous bacteria 94, 283–330. 10.1007/BF00769027

Rengpipat S. 2000. immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium B. subtilis 191, 271-288. HYPERLINK”http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. aquaculture. 2005.07.021″ \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.07.021

Rengpipat S, Phianphak W, Piyatiratiti-vorakul S, Menasveta P. 1998. Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth 167, 301-313. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00305-6” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00305-6

Rollo A. 2006. live microbial feed supplement in aquaculture for improvement of stress tolerance 32, 167-177. 10.1007/s10695-006-0009-2

Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ. 1995. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 1995, p. 887.

Taoka Y. 2009. Growth, stress tolerance and non-specific immune response of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus to probiotics in a closed recirculating system 72, 310-321. 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2011.00863.x

Tseng DY. 2009. Enhancement of immunity and disease resistance in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei by the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20 26, 339-344. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2008.12.003” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2008.12.003

Vaseeharan B, Ramasamy P. 2003. Control of pathogenic Vibrio spp. By Bacillus subtilis BT23, a possible probiotic treatment for black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Lett Appl Microbiol 36, 83-87.

Verschuere L, Heang H, Criel G, Dafnis S, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W. 2000. Protection of Artemia against the pathogenic effects of Vibrio proteolyticus CW8T2 by selected bacterial strains 66, 1139-1146.

Wang YB. 2007. Effect of probiotics on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei 269, 259-264. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.05.035” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.05.035

Yeh MS. 2009. A second ProPO present in white shrimp L. vannamei and expression of the ProPOs during a Vibrio alginolyticus injection, molt stage and oral sodium alginate ingestion. 26, 49-55 HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.07.021” \t “doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.07.021

Ziaei-Nejad S. 2006. The effect of Bacillus spp. bacteria used as probiotics on digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth in the India white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus 252, 516-524. HYPERLINK “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2008.10.003″ \t”doilink” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2008.10.003

Zou X, Wang Y, Li F. 2009. Effects of probiotic on larvae shrimp (p. vannamei) based on water quality survival rate and digestive enzyme activities 287, 353-349.