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Emerging resistance of antibiotics among various bacterial infections

Syeda Ayesha Ali, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Syeda Hafsa Ali, Safa Farooqi, Ashiq Hussain, Saima Azam, Zaib-Un-Nisa Hanif

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Int. J. Biosci.21(2), 121-168, August 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/21.2.121-168

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Abstract

Antibiotics are substances that have a wide range of uses for treating bacterial illnesses. They may be synthetic, naturally occurring, or semi-artificial. The use of antibiotics has enabled the treatment of bacterial infections, saving and enhancing the health of numerous patients around the globe. Antibiotics, however, are not working well enough to stop the spread of infection and the associated mortality rates. However, antibiotic resistance among common community-acquired infections has been on the rise, as has the number of medications to which they are resistant. Data from several researches provide significant evidence that antibiotic use and resistance are interrelated. The highest levels of resistance are found in nations with the highest per capita antibiotic use. Consumption of antimicrobial agents and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance are intricately related. The main causes of resistance are selective antibiotic pressure, the spread of resistant bacteria, and the transfer of resistance genes across bacteria. However, the impact of selective pressure varies depending on the type of bacteria and antibiotic class. The community should refrain from using a lot of antibacterials, especially broad-spectrum antibiotics. When possible, narrow-spectrum penicillins should be employed. Long-term prospective studies that track patterns of antibiotic usage and resistance are required. National measures intended to lessen the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics should be based on reliable data on antimicrobial consumption and resistance.

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Emerging resistance of antibiotics among various bacterial infections

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