Emerging threats and strategies to combat antibiotic resistance: A review

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Review Paper 05/08/2023
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Emerging threats and strategies to combat antibiotic resistance: A review

Priyam Sarmah
Int. J. Biosci.23( 2), 113-132, August 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

An Antibiotic resistant bacterium is an emerging global health concern that results in numerous fatalities and significant economic repercussions annually. Two categories these bacteria Multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR), Extremely Drug-Resistant Bacteria (XDR) exhibit resistance to a wide range of medicines. XDR can spread through direct contact with contaminated surfaces, hence becoming particularly dangerous in healthcare environments. The environment and genetic settings of the bacteria are responsible for causing alterations in the gene expression leading to phenotypic resistance (natural bacterial evolution). Due to this it becomes difficult to control the emergence and impacts of antibiotic resistance. In such type of cases it becomes very important to have a deep understanding of resistance determinants in bacterial populations, resistance mechanisms or how bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to find or develop new medicine or treatment to deal with such antibiotic resistance bacteria. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand distribution of resistance determinants in bacterial populations, elucidate resistance mechanisms, and determine environmental factors that promote their dissemination. This comprehensive review describes the major known self and acquired resistance mechanisms and therapeutic alternatives to deal with such bacteria.

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