Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan degrading microorganism from natural resource

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2012
Views (289) Download (5)

Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan degrading microorganism from natural resource

Ajit Kumar, P.J. John, I. Soni
J. Bio. Env. Sci.2( 6), 41-53, June 2012.
Certificate: JBES 2012 [Generate Certificate]


The enrichment and isolation of microbes from natural resource for endosulfan degradation was carried out to search for the potential candidates for development of in situ bioremediation technology for endosulfan. Twelve soil samples, with history of Endosulfan application, were enriched for microorganisms that can utilize Endosulfan as carbon source in Carbon-Deficient Medium (CDM) or as sole source of sulfur in Non Sulfur Medium (NSM). Five monocultures (N1, N2, N3, N4 & N5) were obtained after Round 2 enrichment of 15 days each, which showed significantly prolific growth on NSM-agar supplemented with Endosulfan as sole sulfur source. On comparison of these monocultures for amount of pesticide degradation, microbial growth and the changes in pH of the medium, when grown in NSM with Endosulfan as sole source of sulfur, strain N2 showed maximum endosulfan degradation (92.2%), microbial growth (0.382) and reduction in media pH (52.78%). The culture conditions of strain N2 were optimized for maximum pesticide degradation. In an optimized culture condition, strain N2 degraded endosulfan upto 94.2% within 7 days, when estimated quantitatively by Gas-Chromatography Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD) method. The study suggests that strain N2 is worth investigating for its biochemical and molecular characterization, to develop a valuable candidate for bioremediation of endosulfan.


Awasthi N, Manickam N, Kumar A. 1997. Biodegradation of endosulfan by a bacterial co-culture. Bull. Eviron. Contam. Toxicol. 59, 928 – 934.

Awasthi N, Ahuja R, Kumar A. 2000. Factors influencing the degradation of soil-applied endosulfan isomers. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32, 1697 – 1705.

Awasthi N, Singh AK, Jain RK, Khangarot BS, Kumar A. 2003. Degradation and detoxification of endosulfan isomers by a defined co-culture of two Bacillus strains. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 62, 279 – 283.

Chaudhari K, Selvaraj S, Pal AK. 1999. Studies on the genotoxicity of endosulfan in bacterial system. Mutat. Res. 439, 63 – 67.

C.N.R.C. 1975. Endosulfan: Its effects on environmental quality. NRC Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, Canada National Research (CNRC), Report No. 11, Subcommittee of pesticides on related compounds, Subcommitte Report No. 3, Publication No. NRCC 14098 of the Environmental Secretariat.

Guerin TF. 1999. The anaerobic degradation of endosulfan by indigenous microorganisms from low oxygen soils and sediments. Environ. Pollut. 106, 13 – 21.

Guha A, Kumari B, Bora TC, Roy MK. 1999. Degradation of endosulfan by Micrococcus sp. and partial characterization of metabolites. Asian J. Microbiol. Biotech. & Env. Sci. 1, 29 – 32.

Hussain S, Arshad M, Saleem M, Zahir ZA. 2006. Screening of soil fungi for in-vitro degradation of endosulfan. World J Microbiol. Biotechnol. ISSN: 1573 – 0972 (Online).

Hussain S, Arshad M, Saleem M, Zahir ZA. 2007. Biodegradation of α- and β-endosulfan by soil bacteria. Biodegradation ISSN: 1572 – 9729 (Online).

Hussain S, Siddique T, Arshad M, Saleem M. 2009. Bioremediation and Phytoremediation of Pesticides: Recent Advances. Crit. Rev. Env. Sc. & Tech. 39(10), 843-907.

Kullman SW, Matsumura F. 1996. Metabolic pathways utilized by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for degradation of the cyclodiene pesticide endosulfan. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 593 – 600.

Lee N, Sherrit JH, Mc Adam DP. 1995. Hapten synthesis and development of ELISAs for the detection of endosulfan in water and soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43, 1730-1739.

Martens R. 1976. Degradation of (8, 9-14C) endosulfan by soil microorganisms. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 6, 853 – 858.

Miles JRW, Moy P. 1979. Degradation of endosulfan and its metabolites by a mixed culture of soil microorganisms. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23, 13 – 19.

Shetty PK, Mitra J, Murthy NBK, Namitha KK, Savitha KN, Raghu K. 2000. Biodegradation of cyclodiene insecticide endosulfan by Mucor thermohyalospora MTCC 1384. Curr. Sci. 79, 1381 – 1383.

Siddique T, Okeke BC, Arshad M, Frankenberger WT. 2003. Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan-degrading microorganisms. J. Environ. Qual. 32, 47 -54.

Sinha N, Narayan R,Saxena DK. 1997. Effect of endosulfan on testis of growing rats. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58, 79 – 86.

Sunderam RIM, Cheng DMH, Thompson GB. 1992. Toxicity of endosulfan to native and introduced fish in Australia. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 11, 1469 – 1476.

Sutherland TD, Horne I, Lacey MJ, Harcourt RL, Russell RJ, Oakeshott JG. 2000. Enrichment of an endosulfan-degrading mixed bacterial culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 2822 – 2828.

Sutherland TD, Weir KM, Lacey MJ, Horne I, Russell RJ, Oakeshott JG. 2002. Enrichment of a microbial culture capable of degrading endosulfate, the toxic metabolite of endosulfan. J. Appl. Microbiol. 92, 541 – 548.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. 1990. Toxicological profile for endosulfan. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA.

USEPA. 2002. Re-registration Eligibility Decision (RED) fact sheet. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), EPA-738-F-02-012 for Endosulfan (Case 0014).

Van Woerden HF. 1963 Organic sulfites. Chem. Rev. 63, 557-571.

Weir KM, Sutherland TD, Horne I, Russell RJ, Oakeshott. 2006. A single monooxygenase, Ese, is involved in the metabolism of organochlorides endosulfan and endosulfate in an Arthrobacter sp.. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 3524 – 3530.

Yadav KPS. 2003. Weight lent to endosulfan study discarded by officials. Down to Earth 12, 7.