Environmental factors affecting the phytonutrient contents of indigenous vegetable panawil (Leptosolena haenkei C. Presl.) in the Cordillera Region, Northern Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2018
Views (347) Download (20)

Environmental factors affecting the phytonutrient contents of indigenous vegetable panawil (Leptosolena haenkei C. Presl.) in the Cordillera Region, Northern Philippines

Joyce N. Paing, Louisa P. Pladio, Yvonne D. Bolayo
J. Bio. Env. Sci.13( 3), 148-156, September 2018.
Certificate: JBES 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Plants are known to produce wide array of chemicals. Indigenous vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (phytonutrients). It has tremendous potential to address poverty alleviation, nutritional security and with great potential value for future utilization. Panawil (Leptosolena haenkei C. Presl.) belongs to the Family Zingiberaceae. This endemic plant to the Cordillera has flowers which was utilized locally as vegetable. Panawil grow in clusters thriving in its ecological habitat at an altitudinal range of 600-1200 meters above sea level in Benguet and Mountain Province. Measured temperature at the time of sampling ranges from 22-26oC. Soil fertility was analyzed using the parameters soil pH, organic matter, phosphorus, and potassium content of the soil. Phytonutrient analyses revealed that indigenous vegetable panawil is a rich source of phytochemicals such as terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidants; minerals like phosphorus, potassium, iron, and zinc; and including vitamins A (β-carotene) and C (ascorbic acid). The study revealed that environmental factors influenced the phytonutrient contents of panawil. Total phenolic content of panawil varies with altitude, while flavonoid and leucoanthocyanin is influenced by soil pH. Similarly, variation in soil organic matter affects the plant potassium content.


Asami DK, Hong YJ, Barrett DM. 2003. Comparison of Total Phenolic and Ascorbic Acid Content of Freeze-Dried and Air-dried Marion berry, Strawberry, and Corn Grown Using Conventional, Organic and Sustainable Agricultural Practices. Agric. Food Chem 2003, 51(5), pp 1237-1241. www.pubs. acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf020635c. J.

AVRDC. 1990.Vegetable Research and Development in SADCC Countries”. In: AVRDC Proceedings of a Workshop in Arusha, Tanzania (eds. Opena, R.T. & A.R. based_vegetable_gardens_and_ other_strategies_to_overcome_micronutrient_malut

Benguet Province Profile. 2005. Municipal Planning and Development Office, La Trinidad, Benguet 15.

Bolayo YD. 2006. Phytonutrient Analysis of the Shoots of Passion (Passiflora edulis, Sims). Master’s Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet 34-42.

Buhler*† DR, Miranda† CL, Stevens JF, Ivanov V, McCall M, Frei F, Deinzer ML. 2000. Antioxidant and Prooxidant Actions of Prenylated and Nonprenylated Chalcones and Flavanones in Vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2000 48(9),

Calpi MT. 2001. Effect of Sul-Po-Mag on the Growth and Yield of Cabbage and on Some Chemical Properties of the Soil. Undergraduate Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet 9-11.

Chadha ML, Olouch MO. 2002. Home-based vegetable gardens and other strategies to overcome micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries. AVRDC.

Crozier AM, Ashihara H. 2006. Plant Secondary Metabolites: Occurrence Structure and Role in the Human Diet. New York: John Willey and Sons, Inc   p. 285-320.

Engle, L.M., Faustino, F.C. 2007. Conserving The Indigenous Vegetable Germplasm Of Southeast Asia. Acta Hortic. 752, 55-60 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.752.5 https://doi.org/ 10.17660/ActaHortic. 2007.752.5

Ethering JR. 1975. Environment and Plant Ecology. London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc p. 82-95.

Eusebio JE. 2006. Promoting Utilization of Indigenous Vegetables for Improved Nutrition in the Philippines. Paper Presented during the 1st International Conference on Indigenous Vegetables and Legumes held in ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India, Dec. 12-15, 2006.

Funakoshi H.  Kress WJ, Skornlckova J, Liu A, Inoue K. 2005. Return from the Lost: Rediscovery of the Presumed Extinct Leptosolena (Zingiberaceae) in the Philippines and its Phylogenetic Placement in Gingers. Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 56(2005) 1 p. 41-53 https://doi.org/10.18942/ apg.KJ00004622912

Guevara QB. 2005. A Guidebook to Plant Analysis: Phytochemical and Biological. University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, UST, España, Manila p. 51-87.

Hamilton JG, Zangerl AR, De Lucia EH, Berenbaum MR. 2001. Ecology: The Carbon Nutrient Balance Hypothesis its Rise and Fall. Retrieved July 20, 2006 www.life.uiv.edu/ delucia/CNB%paperpdf

Harborne JB. 1973. Phytochemical Methods: A Modern Guide Techniques of Plant Analysis. New York: Halsted Press p. 22-61.

Jones BJ, Wolf B, Mills HA. 1991. Plant Analysis Handbook: A Practical Sampling Preparation, Analysis and Interpretation Guide p. 17.

Kohlmeier M. 2003. Nutrient Metabolism. London: Academic Press p. 115-182. Kyomo). Tanzania, Africa. www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19920.

Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA). 2007. Healthier Farmers, better Products. Vol. 23. No. 3. Amersfoort, the Netherlands.

Madesa ME, Tsamekang ME. 2006. Conservation and Utilization of Indigenous Vegetables in Botswana. Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshop on Genetic Resources of Traditional Vegetables in Africa: Conservation and Use 29-31 August 1995, ICRAF-HQ, Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved July 20, 2006 www.ipgri.cgiar.org/publications/HTMLPublications/500/begin.htm#Contents.

Marko M. 1994. Autotoxicity in Plants. Retrieved June 8, 2006 www.colostate.edu/depts/ entomology/cources/en570/papers1994/marko.html

Marschner H. 1986. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. London: Academia Press, Inc p. 230-275.

Miller HE, Rigelhof F, Marquart L, Prakash A, Kanter M. 2013. Antioxidant Content of Whole Grain Breakfast Cereals, Fruits and Vegetables, Journal of the American College of Nutrition 19, sup 3, 312S-319S DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2000.10718966

Mitchell A. 2006. A Comparison of the Nutrient and Phytochemical Content of Organic and Conventional Tomatoes and Peppers. Retrieved February 14, 2008. http://mitchell-davis.edu/OSA2006_Mitchell2.pdf

Mountain Province Profile. 2007. Municipal Planning and Development Office, Sagada, Mountain Province.

Parker R. 2003. Introduction to Food Science. Delmar Thompson Learning, Inc. Australia p. 212-253.

Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research. 1980. Standard Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant, Tissue, Water and Fertilizer. Farm resources and Systems Research Division, Los Baños, Laguna p. 25-58.

Pugnaire FI, Luque MT. 2001. Changes in Plant Interactions Along a Gradient of Environmental Stress. Retrieved June 9, 2006 from OIKOS Journal. www.OIKOS% (2093) 42-49.

Salcedo PG. 2001. Floral Inventory and Assessment of Mount Amuyao Mossy Forest (Luzon, Philippines) for Biodiversity Resources Conservation and Management. Master’s Thesis. University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna 39-44.

Shepherd S, Griffiths D. 2006. Tansley Review: The effects of Stress on Plant Cuticular Waxes. Retrieved May 20, 2007.

Wahid A, Gelani S, Masraf M, Foolad M. 1997. Heat Tolerance in Plants: An overview. Environmental and Experimental Botany. Accessed on November 15, 2007 www.plantstress.com/Articles/up_heat_files/Heat%20Tolerance%pdf