Int. J. Biosci.14(1), 38-52, January 2019
The significance of epigenetics for mental health and neurodevelopment to assess the contribution of gene–environment interactions to brain function is becoming increasingly clear. Epigenetic programming functions in respect to the interaction between genetics and the environment. It has the capability to make us thinking about the infraction of the prior assumption of independence between genotype and the environment. Some environmental factors such as diet, maternal behavior, psychosocial or chemical exposures have been shown to alter the progression of epigenetic programming in a significant way during the early development. Since epigenetically modified genes can be reclaimed, methylation silenced genes can be demethylated and histone complexes can be executed transcriptionally active by modification of acetylation and methylation of various histones through drugs and/or other dietary interventions, the rapidly growing field of epigenetics provides a perfect opportunity to design rationale therapeutic strategies. The widespread impact of epigenetic modifications suggests that understanding the underlying mechanisms of epigenetic contributions on mental health as well as neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders holds a great promise for us to be a rich source of more rationale and even personalized therapeutic interventions to treat these disorders in the near future. In this review, we discussed an emerging idea that epigenetic regulation may provide a mechanism by which environmental events can be encoded at the molecular level where they are recognized to influence brain function and also the future prospects of epigenetic therapies to decrease the burden of diseases by modulating epigenetic mechanisms in various ways.
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