Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and nutritional characterization of Bixa Orellana Linn. seeds of Benin Ecology

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Research Paper 01/07/2020
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Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and nutritional characterization of Bixa Orellana Linn. seeds of Benin Ecology

Ezéchiel Akakpo, Marius Eric Badoussi, Claude Kouassi Gnacadja, Hermance Houngbo, Alphonse Dossou, Fernand Gbaguidi, Paulin Azokpota
Int. J. Biosci.17( 1), 46-56, July 2020.
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Bixa orellana seeds, providers of biocolorant, are found in some localities of Benin. However, its local names, its uses such as the phytochemical and nutritional characteristics are not documented. This paper focuses on characterizing the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and nutritional plan of Bixa orellana seeds of Benin ecology. An ethnobotanical investigation was first carried out close to 148 seeds users in two agro-ecological zones. The seeds collected at the investigation time were characterized through their phytochemical screening and evaluation of their nutritional value by reference methods. Various designations are associated to Annatto according to the socio-cultural groups of Benin such as “timati winiwini”, “timati kouinon” or “Kpokpo” (Fon and Mahi, in Zou and the Collines); “Kpararou”, “Dodokpara”, “Kparara” or “Timati borou” (Bariba and Dendi, in the North); “Disonri”, “Dipersonri” or “Monsonri” (Ditamari, in the North). These designations refer to its use in sauces as a substitute for tomatoes due to its red color (64.78%). Ripe fruit (10.81%) and seeds powder (8.10%) is used to treat anemia. Phytochemical screening of seeds revealed gallic tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, saponins, triterpenoids, steroids, mucilage, reducing compounds, and C-heterosides. Nutritionally, the seeds contain protein (12.83%), fats (4.64%), Potassium (14.59 mg/g), Sodium (6.93 mg/g), Phosphorus (4.79 mg/g), Calcium (2.89 mg/g), Magnesium (1.04 mg/g), Manganese (0.19 mg/g), Copper (0.19 mg/g), and Iron (0.01 mg/g). In addition to being an excellent source of dyes usable for various purposes, Annatto is a potentially nutritious product. It is therefore of paramount importance in the improvement of the quality of traditional food.


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