Evaluation of heavy metals pollution in water and sediments of Changdang Lake, China

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2017
Views (209) Download (13)

Evaluation of heavy metals pollution in water and sediments of Changdang Lake, China

Javid Hussain, Ittehad Hussain, Zhenhua Zhao, Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari
J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 6), 33-46, December 2017.
Certificate: JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


An investigation of the water and sediments of Changdang Lake China was carried out to know how seriously they are polluted from heavy metals. Water samples and sediments were collected from six sites in March, June and September 2015. The total average concentrations of heavy metals in water were measured as Mn 0.08 mg/L, Fe 72.48mg/L, Cu 0.10 mg/L, Cr 0.001 mg/L, Cd 0.0002 mg/L, Ni 0.014 mg/L, Zn 0.022 mg/L, and Hg 0.058 mg/L, while in sediments Cu 70.50 mg/Kg, Zn 255.55 mg/Kg, As 12.83 mg/Kg, Ni 42.50 mg/Kg, Cr 96.39 mg/Kg, Cd 0.02 mg/Kg, Pb 41.50 mg/Kg, Hg 0.25 mg/Kg, respectively. By applying the USEPA health risk assessment models, results indicated that the total heavy metal health risk levels in water were in the range of 2.7×10-5 -4.3×10-5a-1, with an average risk of 3.7×10-5a-1.The highest risk was found at site 6# (4.3×10-5a-1) which is inlet from the Xuebu River, while the lowest risk was found at site 2# (2.7×10-5a-1), which is located near the center of the Lake. All the risks values were below the ICRP recommended maximum acceptable level (5×10-5·a-1). The ecological risk assessment in sediments was carried out by the potential ecological risk index (PERI) proposed by Hakanson (1980). Results showed that the risk posed by heavy metals is low both in sediments and water. PCA factor loadings suggested that the sources of heavy metals in Changdang Lake sediments are from anthropogenic and lithogenic activities.


Arup LJ. 2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin 68(1), 167–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldg032

Atkinson CA, Jolley DF, Simpso SLE. 2007. Effect of overlying water pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity and sediment disturbances on metal release and sequestration from metal contaminated marine sediments. Chemosphere 69(9), 1428-1437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.068

AlkortaI, Hernández-Allica J, BecerrilJ, Amezaga I, Albizu I, Garbisu C. 2004. Recent findings on the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with environmentally toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Review. Environmental Science and Biotechnology,3, 71–90.

APHA. Water Environment Federation (APHA/AWWA/ WEF). 1995. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 9-31.

Bertin C, Bourg ACM. 1995. Trends in the heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Zn) of river sediments in the drainage basin of smelting activities. Water Research, 29, 1729-1736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)00327-4

Bundschuh J, Litter MI, Parvez F. 2012. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from14 countries, Science of the Total Environment,429, 2-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.06.024

Douay F, Pelfrene A, Planque J, Fourrier H, Richard A, Roussel H, Girondelot B. 2013. Assessment of potential health isk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter, Part 1: metal concentrations in soils, agricultural crops, and homegrown vegetables. Environmental. Monitoring and. Assessment 185, 3665-3680.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2818-3

EPA Method 3050 B. December 1996. Acid digestion of sediments, sludge, and oils.

Fadigas JC, dos Santos AMP, de Jesus RM, Lima DC, Fragoso WD, David JM, Ferreira  SLC. 2010. Use of multivariate analysis techniques for the characterization of analytical results for the determination of the mineral composition of kale. Journal of Microchemical 96(2), 352–356.

Fu J,  Zhao CLuo YLiu CKyzas GZLuo YZhao DAn SZhu H. 2014. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors. Journal of Hazardous Material, 270, 102-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.044

Gielar A, Rybicka EH, Moller S, Einax  JW. 2012. Multivariate analysis of sediment data from the upper and middle Odra River (Poland). Applied Geochemitry 27(8), 1540–1545.

Hu CH, Zhou P, Huang P, Du J, Zhou WB. 2012. Behavior characteristics of dissolved heavy metals and health risks assessment from Poyang Lake basin, China, [In Chinese]. Journal of. Agro-Environment Science, 31(5), 1009.

Hakanson LL. 1980. An ecological risk index aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water Research 14(8), 975–1001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8

Hopenhayn C. 2006. Arsenic in drinking water: impact on human health. Elements 2(2), 103-107.

Ikem A, Egiebor NO. 2005. Assessment of trace elements in canned fishes (mackerel, tuna, salmon, sardines and herrings) marketed in Georgia and Alabama (United States of America). Journal of  Food Composition and Analyis, 18, 771-787. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.11.002

Institute of Medicine, Panel on Micronutrients Washington, DC. US. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. http://dx.doi.org/10.17226/10026

Jain CK, Harish G, Chakrapani GJ. 2008. Enrichment and fractionation of heavy metals in bedsediments of river Narmada, India. Environmental Monitoring and  Assessessment 141, 35-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9876-y

Jain CK. 2004. Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna, India. Water Research 38(3), 569-578.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j

Llobet JM, Falco G, Casas C, Teixido A, Domingo JL.  2003. Concentration of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in common foods and estimated daily intake by children, adolescents, adults, and seniors of Catalonia, Spain. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51, 838-842. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020734q

Mucha AP, Vasconcelos MTSD, Bordalo AA. 2003.Macro benthic community in the Douro Estuary: relations with heavy metals and natural sediment characteristics. Environmental. Pollution, 121, 169–180.

Muhammad S, Shah MT, Khan S. 2011. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Journal of Microchemical 98(2), 334–343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2011.03.003

Maldonado VM, Rubio Arias HO, Quintana R, Saucedo RA, Gutierrez M, Ortega JA,  Nevarez GV. 2008. Heavy metal content in soils under different wastewater irrigation patterns in Chihuahua, Mexico. International. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5, 441-449.

Ma Z, Chen K, Yuan Z, Bi J, Huang LEJ. 2013. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of six major Chinese freshwater lakes. Environmental Quality, 42(2), 341–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2012.0178

Nabholz JV. 1991. Environmental hazard and risk assessment under the United States Toxic Substances Control Act. Science of the. Total Environment 109, 649-665.

Powers  KM, Smith-Welle T, Franklin GM, Longstreth WT, Swanson PD, Checkoway H. 2003. Parkinson’s disease risks associated with dietary iron, manganese, and other nutrient intakes.Journal of Neurology 60(11), 1761-1766.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000068021.13945.7F

Suresh G, Sutharsan P, Ramasamy V, Venkatachalapathy R. 2012. Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India. Ecotoxicology and Environ. Safety 84, 117-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.027

Shah MH, Iqbal J, Shaheen LN, Khan N, Choudhary MA, Akhter G. 2011. Distribution, correlation and risk assessment of selected metals in urban soils from Islamabad, Pakistan. Journal of Hazardous Material, 192(2), 887–898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.05.105

Singh KP, Malik A, Sinha S, Singh VK, Murthy RC. 2005. Estimation of source of heavy metal contamination in sediments of Gomti River (India) using principal component analysis. Water Air Soil Pollution,166, 321–341.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-005-5268-5

Shah MH, Iqba J, Shaheen LN, Khan N, Choudhary MA, Akhter G. 2012. Assessment of background levels of trace metals in water and soil from a remote region of Himalaya. Environmental. Monitoring and Assessessment 184(3), 1243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2036-4

Smedley PL, Nicolli HB, Macdonald DM, Barros AJ, Tullio JO. 2002. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic and other inorganic constituents in groundwaters from La Pampa, Argentina. Applied Geochemistry,17(3), 259–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(01)00082-8

Singh A, Sharma, RK, Agrawal M, and Marshall FM. 2010.Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India, Food Chemistry and Toxicology 48, 611-619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.041

Suresh G, Ramasamy V, Meenakshi sundaram V, Venkatachalapathy R, Ponnu-samy V. 2011. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal compositionon natural radionuclide contents in the rivers ediments. Applied. Radiation and. Isotopes, 69(10), 1466–1474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.05.020 

Singh V, Garg AN. 2006. Availability of essential trace elements in Indian cereals, vegetables and spices using INAA and the contribution of spices to daily dietary intake. Food Chemistry 94(1), 81-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.053

Tack FM, Verloo MG. 1995. Chemical speciation  and fractionation in soil and sediment heavy metal analysis: A review. International Journal of Environmental andAnalyticalChemistry 59, 225–238.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC, USA. USEPA Method 3052. Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion of Siliceous and Organically Based Matrices [CD-ROM].

USEPA Washington, DC, USA. 2003. Technical Standard Operating Procedure. SOP EH- 01. Adapted from ERT/REAC SOP.

Wu JL, Li SJ, Luecke A, Wang SM. 2002. Climatic signals in the last 200 years from stable isotope record in the shells of freshwater snails in Lake Xingcuo, eastern Tibet Plateau, China. Journal of. Geochemistry 21, 234-243.

Zeng HA,  Wu JL. 2009. Sedimentry records of heavy metal pollution in Fuxian Lake, Yunnan, China: The intensity, history and source. Pedosphere 19(5), 562-569.

Zhu Z, Li Z, Bi X, Han Z, Yu G. 2013. Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.12.024