Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Evaluation of the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Canarium ovatum (Burseraceae) pulp extracts

Research Paper | September 1, 2017

| Download 6

Lilibeth A. Cajuday, Daile Meek S. Membreve, Jocelyn E. Serrano

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.11( 3), 239-248, September 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/11.3.239-248


IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


The study evaluated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Canarium ovatum pulp. Mechanical and ethanolic extractions were done to prepare the oil (COPO) and ethanolic (COPE) extracts from the C. ovatum pulp. The extracts were used to screen for the biological activities and phytochemical components. The antioxidant level was evaluated using the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) assays. The CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) and sea urchin fertilization assays were used to test for anticancer activity and cytotoxicity.  Results of the DPPH and FRAP assays showed high reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of COPE compared to COPO and ascorbic acid. CAM assay revealed a significant inhibition (p=0.05) in blood vessel formation in all the COPE-treated samples only compared to the vehicle control. In the sea urchin fertilization assay, the inhibitory effect of COPE was observed in the medium (1mg/ml) and high (10mg/ml) treatments where there were significant reductions (p=0.05) in the percentage of fertilized egg compared with the control. The lowest concentration (0.1mg/ml) of COPE was inactive in this assay. The computed IC50 for COPE was 0.369mg/mL. Phytochemical screening of the different extracts revealed the presence of bioactive constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, sterols, tannins and triterpenes. Further studies be done to validate the results and elucidate mechanism of action of the bioactive components present in the extracts.


Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Evaluation of the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Canarium ovatum (Burseraceae) pulp extracts

Asuncion JN. 2006. Pili Oil Extraction Guide. Department of Science and Technology-V.

Bojo ZP, Deano CD, Jacinto SD, Concepcion GP. 2010. Synergistic in vitro cytotoxicity of adociaquinone B and heptyl prodigiosin against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Philippine Science Letters 3, 48-59.

Brown WH. 1954. Useful plants of the Philippines. Republic of the Philippines Department of Agriculture Natural Research Technical Bulletin 10(2), 241-256. Bureau of Printing, Manila.

Chan BA and Cajuday LA. 2013. Anti-angiogenic property of the aqueous extract of Canarium ovatum leaves using CAM assay. Transactions of the National Academy of Science and Technology. ISSN 0115-8848, 35:1, National Academy of Science and Technology Philippines (abst.).

Chattopadhyay D, Dungdung SR, Mandal AB, Majumder GC. 2005. A potent sperm motility-inhibiting activity of bioflavonoids from an ethnomedicine of Onge, Alstonia macrophylla Wall ex A. DC, leaf extract. Contraception 71(5), 372-8.

Chichioco-Hernandez CL, Paguigan DN. 2009. Chichioco-Hernandez, C.L., and D.N. Antimutagenic potential and phytochemical analysis of selected Philippine plants. Pharmacognosy Magazine 5, 388-93.

Coronel RE. 1996. Pili nut Cavarium ovatum Engl. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Crop Research, Gatersleben / International Plant Genetic Research Institute (IPGRI) 57p.

Dai ZJ, Lu WF, Gao J, Kang HF, Ma YG, Zhang SQ, Diao Y, Lin S, Wang XJ, Wu WY. 2013. Anti-angiogenic effect of the total flavonoids in Scutellaria barbata D. Don. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Jul 1; 13:150. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-150.

Del Rosario OM. 2009. Antioxidant components of Pili. Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Los Baños Laguna.

Deryugina EI, Quigley JP. 2008. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model systems to study and visualize human tumor cell metastasis. Histochemistry and Cell Biology 130, 1119-1130.

Dong Y, Lu B, Zhang X, Zhang J, Lai L, Li D, Wu Y,  Song Y, Luo J, Pang X, Yi Z, Liu M. 2010. Cucurbitacin E, a tetracyclic triterpenes compound from Chinese medicine, inhibits tumor angiogenesis through VEGFR2-mediated Jak2–STAT3 signaling pathway. Carcinogenesis 31(12), 2097-2104.

Duan XW, Jiang YM, Su Xg, Zhang Q, Shi J. 2007. Antioxidant properties of anthocyanins extracted from litchi (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.) fruit pericarp tissues in relation to their role in the pericarp browning. Food Chemistry 101, 1365-1371.

Floegel A, Kim D, Chung SJ, Koo S, Chun O. 2011. Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis   24, 1043-1048.

Gutierrez PM. 2016. Antimitotic activity of Carica papaya in the in vitro development of sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla embryo. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 5(6), 12-17.

Hu L, Yu W, Li Y, Prasad N, Tang Z. 2014. Antioxidant Activity of Extract and Its Major Constituents from Okra Seed on Rat Hepatocytes Injured by Carbon Tetrachloride. Biomed Research International 2014, 1-9.

Kakuda Y, Jahaniaval F, Marcone M, Montevirgen L, Montevirgen Q, Umali J. 2000. Characterization of Pili Nut (Canarium ovatum) Oil: Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Composition and Physicochemical Properties. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 77, 991-997.

Kikuchi T, Watanabe TK, Tochigi Y, Yamamoto A, Fukatsu M, Ezaki Y, Tanaka R, Akihisa T. 2012. Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of sesquiterpenes from Canarium ovatum resin in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Chemistry and Biodiversity 9,1500-1507.

Luo H, Daddysman MK, Rankin GO, Jiang BH, Chen YC. 2010. Kaempferol enhances cisplatin’s effect on ovarian cancer cells through promoting apoptosis caused by down regulation of cMyc. Cancer Cell International, 10, 16. doi: 10.1186/1475-2867-10-16.

Macedo NMR, Costa-Lotufo LV, Pessoa C, Moraes MO, Bonfim LR, Ramos MV. 2007. Inhibition of Sea Urchin Fertilization by Plant Lectins. Protein and Peptide Letters 14, 886-893.

Madamba LSP, Flavier ME, Vasquez MTL, Quinado RO. 1991. Storage study on Pili (Canarium ovatum) nut and pulp oil. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 74, 253-260.

Maurya S, Kushwaha A, Singh S, Singh G. 2014. An overview on antioxidative potential of honey from different flora and geographical origins. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 5, 9-19.

Mensor L, Menezes F, Leitao G, Reis A, dos Santos T, Coube C, Leitao S. 2001. Screening of Brazilian Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytotheraphy Research 15,127-130.

Mogana R, Wiart C. 2011. Canarium L. A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Journal of Pharmacy Research 4, 2482-2489.

Mojzis J, Varinska L, Mojzisova G, Kostova I, Mirossay L. 2008. Antiangiogenic effects of flavonoids and chalcones. Pharmacology Research 57, 259-265.

Pham LJ, Casa EP, Gregorio MA, Kwon DY. 1998. Triacylglycerols and region specific fatty acid analysis of Philippine seed oils. Journal of American Oil Chemist’s Society 75, 807-811.

Rabeta MS, Faraniza NR. 2013. Total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power of the leaves and fruits of Garcinia atrovirdis and Cynometra cauliflora. International Food Research Journal 20(4), 1691-1696.

Ragasa CY, Torres OB, Shen CC. 2015. Triterpenes and acylglycerols from Canarium ovatum. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5(04), 94-100.

Rahman A. 1995. Bioactive natural products. Studies in natural products chemistry, 15, 3-557. Copyright © Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rajesh P and Natvar P. 2011. In vitro antioxidant activity of coumarin compounds by DPPH, Superoxide and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education and Research 1, 52-68.

Richardson M, Singh G. 2003. Observations on the use of the avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model in investigations into angiogenesis. Current Drug Targets-Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders   3, 155-185.

Saklani A, Kutty SK. 2008. Plant-derived compounds in clinical trials, Drug Discovery Today 13(3-4), 161-171.

Schatten H, Schatten T, Bestor H, and Balczon R. 1982. Taxol Inhibits the Nuclear Movements during Fertilization and Induces Asters in Unfertilized Sea Urchin Eggs. The Journal of Cell Biology 94, 455-465.

Schiff PB, Horwitz SB. 1980. Taxol stabilizes microtubules in mouse fibroblastcells Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 77, 156l 1565.

Schuel H, Berkery D, Schuel R, Chang MC, Zimmerman AM, Zimmerman S. 1991. Reduction of the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm by cannabinoids derived from marijuana. Molecular Reproduction and Development 29(1), 51-9. DOI: 10.1002/mrd.1080290109.

Selmavohan TV, Ramadas S, Shinila Selva Kishore. 2012. Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Against Some Selected Human Pathogenic Bacteria. Advances in Applied Science Research 3(5), 3374-3381.

Semenova MN, Kiselyov A, Semenov VV. 2006. Sea urchin embryo as a model organism for the rapid functional screening of tubulin modulators BioTechniques 40, 765-774  DOI: 10.2144/000112193.

Sharkirin FH, Azlan A, Ismail A, Amom Z, Yuon LC. 2012. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2012, 1-9. DOI: 10.1155/2012/840973.

Solowey E, Lichtenstein M, Sallon S, Paavilainen H, Lorberboum-Galski H. 2014. Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity. The Scientific World Journal 2014, 1-12. DOI.org/10. 1155/2014/721402.

Tascilar M, de Jong FA, Verweij J, Mathijssen RHJ. 2006. Complementary and alternative medicine during cancer treatment: beyond innocence. Oncologist 11(7), 732-741.

Tirzitis G, Bartosz G. 2010. Determination of antiradical and antioxidant activity: basic principles and new insights. ACTA ABP Biochemica Polonica 57, 139-142.

Tufan AC, Satiroglu-Tufan NL. 2005. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as a model system for the study of tumor angiogenesis, invasion and development of anti-angiogenic agents. Current Cancer Drug Targets 5, 249-266.

Zarinah Z, Maaruf AG, Nazaruddin R, Wong WWW, Xuebing X. 2014. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and in-vitro cytotoxicity screening study of Pili nut oil. International Food Research Journal 21(1), 309-316.

Zhu WJ, Yu DH, Zhao M, Lin MG, Lu Q, Wang QW, Guan YY, Li GX, Luan X, Yang YF, Qin XM, Fang C, Yang GH, Chen HZ. 2016. Antiangiogenic triterpenes isolated from Chinese herbal medicine Actinidia chinensis Planch. Anticancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 13(2),195-8.