Experimentation of immunofluorescence technology in the quantification of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. (oo) cysts in surface water in Yaounde, Cameroon

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2012
Views (268) Download (7)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Experimentation of immunofluorescence technology in the quantification of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. (oo) cysts in surface water in Yaounde, Cameroon

Ajeagah Gideon A, Foto Samuel, Njine Thomas
Int. J. Biosci.2( 3), 28-39, March 2012.
Certificate: IJB 2012 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

With the advent of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the human host has become susceptible to most opportunistic pathogens. Some of these organisms are the emerging protozoan entero-parasites; Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia spp. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp and cysts of Giardia spp in the surface water of Yaoundé, Cameroon, using the standard(UnitedStates Environment and Protection Agency) USEPA Method 1623, which is based on ultrafiltration, immuno-magnetic seperation and fluorescence antibody. The analysis lead to the determination of some ecological factors of the aquatic ecosystem, which are turbidity, suspended solids , ammonia, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and the correlation between the biodynamics of the (oo) cysts in the medium characterised. These particles could play an important role in the transportation of the (oo) cysts in the aquatic medium by an adsorption mechanism. Our results obtained for the surface water suggested an increase in the pathogen densities from upstream to downstream. The minimum-maximum values recorded for the for Giardia cysts along the Mfoundi , were 7-15 cysts/L , 12-38 cysts /L and 31-98 cysts/L respectively. The minimum –maximum values recorded for the Cryptosporidium oocysts from upstream to downstream of the Mfoundi, were 4-6oocysts/ L, 18-54 oocysts / L and 26- 64 oocysts/ L respectively.

VIEWS 10

Amy JP, Alexandria BB, Mathew M, Jennifer D. 2010. Efficacy of waterless hand Hygiene compared with handwashing with soap, A field studying Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medecinr, Hygiene, 82(2), 270-278.

Anya O, Aman DV, Benoit B, Annie C, Romain P, David LB. 2010. A simulation model of waterborne Gastro-Intestinal Disease outbreaks.Description and Initial Evaluation .Amia Annu Symp Proc, 557-561.

Arnone RD, Walling JP. 2006. Evaluating Cryptosporidium and Giardia concentrations in combined sewer overflow. Journal of Water Health 4(2), 157-65.

Bachelier G. 1959. Etude pédologique des sols de Yaoundé ; contribution à l’étude de la pédologie des sols ferrallitiques. Agronomie Tropicale XIV, 3, 279-305.

Brandinosio O. 2006. Waterborne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium . Parasitologia, 48(1-2): 91-4.

Brush FC, Ghiorse WC, Lynne JA, Parlange J. V. Ghiorse HG. 1999. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through saturated columns .Journal of Environ Quality 28, 809- 815 .

Brooks JD, Davies CM, Hipsey MR, Antenucci P. 2006. Association of Cryptosporidium with bovine faecal particles and implications for risk reduction by settling within water supply reservoirs. Journal of Water Health 4(1), 87-98.

Brush FC, Ghiorse WC, Lynne JA. , Parlange JV, Ghiorse HG. 1999. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through saturated columns .Journal of Environ Quality 28, 809- 815 .

Craun GF, Brunkard JM, Yoder JS, Roberts VA, Carpenter J, Wade T, Calderon RL, Roberts JM, Beach MJ, Roy SL. 2010. Causes of outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States from 1971-2006, Cinicalo Microbiology Review 23(3), 507-528.

Dai X, Boll J. 2003. Evaluation of the attachment of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia to soil particles. Journal of Environmental Quality 32, 296-304.

Doron M. 2000. Cryptosporidium dans l’environment aquatique.consequence pour les eaux de distribution. (Service National d’information et de documentation sur l’eau. (SNIDE).

Giovanni GD, Betancourt WQ, Joe H, Naomi W, Assadian, Juan P, Flores M, Esaul JL. 2006. Investigation of potential zooanthroponotic transmission of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis through agricultural use of reclaimed wastewater. International Journal of Environmental Health research 16(6), 1-32.

Harter T, Atwill E, Hou L, Karle B, Tate K. 2008. Developing risk models of Cryptosporidium transport in soils from vegetated , tilted soil box experiments. Journal of Environmental Quality 37(1), 245-58.

Hsu BM, Houang C, Pan JR. 2001. Filtration behavior of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Ionic strength and pH effects. Water Research 16, 3777-3782.

Jenkins MB, Bowman DD, Ghiorse WC. 1998. Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by ammonia. Applied Environmental Microbiology 64, 784-788.

Kabore H, Pascal M, Levallois P, Dery P, Payment P, Lebel G. 2010. A descriptive review of selected non viral enteric illnesses reported in children in Quebec between 1999 and 2006, Canadian Jounal of infectious Diseases and Medical Microbioly 21(2), 92-98.

Keush GT, Kelly J, Ward H. 1995. Cryptosporidia-who is at risk. Schweizmedwochensihev 125(18), 899-908.

Ma JF, Juan JB. 2010. News perspectives in monitoring drinking water ,Microbial Quality , International Journal of Environmental Research, Public Health 7(12), 4179-4202

Mok-Young L , Eun-Joo C, Jin-Hyo L, Sun-Hee H, Yong-Sang P. 2011. A ten year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul , The Repubic of Korea, Korean Journal of Parasitology 49(1), 9-15.

Savioli L, Smith H, Thompson A.. 2006.Giardia and Cryptosporidium join the ‘Neglected Diseases Initiative .Trends in Parasitology 22(5), 203-208.

Suchel J. 1972. Travaux et documents de géographie tropicale – N° 5 – La répartition des pluies et les régimes pluviométriques au Cameroun. Université du Cameroun / TALENCE, CEGET Centre d’Études de Géographie Tropicale / CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, p. 267.

Wuhip T, Silva TM, Newman RD, Garcia LS. 1994. Cryptosporidial and Microsporidial infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Infectious Diseases 170(2), 494-497.