Genetic structure in anzali wetland’s pike (Esox lucius) using microsatellite molecular method

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2015
Views (170) Download (6)

Genetic structure in anzali wetland’s pike (Esox lucius) using microsatellite molecular method

Mohammad Hadi Samiei, Mehrnoush Norouzi, Amin Ravaei, Mohammad Behrooz, Ali Nazemi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 3), 91-99, March 2015.
Certificate: JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


In this research, Pike (Esox lusius) one of the most valuable commercial marine species has been evaluated for genetic structure in Anzali wetland using microsatellite markers. 60 specimens of adult pikes were sampled from two spawning seasons, winter and spring in Anzali wetland. Five pairs of microsatellites, tested on the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). All loci of microsatellite produced polymorphic bands as polymorphic loci were used to analyze the genetic variation of the pike. Analyses revealed that average of alleles per locus were 10.8 (range 9 to 13 alleles). All sampled seasons contained private alleles. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.914 and 0.885, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient values of five microsatellite loci were negative. With the exception of a locus in spring, all loci significantly deviated from H-W equilibrium (P<0.01). Based on AMOVA, RST and FST values were significant between seasons (P<0.01). The genetic distance between populations was 0.442, which indicates that the genetic difference among the studied populations is significant. These results support the existence of different genetic populations in spawning seasons in this area.


Abdoli A, Naderi M. 2009. Biodiversity of fishes of the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. Abzian Scientific Publication, 242. (In Persian).

Aguilar A, Banks JD, Levine KF, Wayne RK. 2005. Population genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius) introduced into Lake Davis, California. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62, 1589- 1599.

Alarcon JA, Magoulasb A, Georgakopoulosb T, Zourosb E, Alvareza MC. 2004. Genetic comparison of wild and cultivated European populations of the Githead Sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 230, 65- 80.

Balloux F, Lugon-Moulin N. 2002. The estimate of population differentiation with microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology 11, 155- 165.

Bataillon T, David MJL, Schoen DJ. 1996. Neutral genetic markers and conservation: simulated germplasm collections. Genetics 144, 409-417.

Beardmore JA, Mair GC, Lewis RI. 1997. Biodiversity in aquatic systems in relation to aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 28, 829– 839.

Chistiakov DA, Hellemans B, Haley CS, Law AS, Tsigenopoulos CS, Kotoulas G, Bertotto D, Libertini A, Volchaert FA. 2005. A microsatellite linkage map of the European sea bass Dicentrachus labrax L. Genetics 170, 1821-1826.

Dewoody JA, Avise JC. 2000. Microsatellaite variation in marine, freshwater and anadermous fishes with other animals. Journal of fish Biology 56, 461-473.

Diz PA, Presa P. 2009. The genetic diversity pattern of Mytilus alloprovincialis in Galician Rías (NW Iberian estuaries). Aquaculture 287, 278-285.

Frankham R. 2008. Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs. Molecular Ecology 17, 325-333.

Hakansson J, Jensen P. 2005. Behavioral and morphological variation between captive populations of red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus): possible implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 122, 431–439.

Jacobsen BH, Hansen MM, Loeschcke V. 2005. Microsatellite DNA analysis of northern pike (Esox lucius L) populations: Insights into the genetic structure & demographic history of a genetically depauperate species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84, 91-101.

Khodadoust A, Imanpoor MR, Taghizadeh V, Khara H, Rahbar M, Rasta M. 2013. Study on Levels of Sex Steroid Hormones of Pike (Linnaeus, 1758) in Anzali Wetland. Global Veterinaria 10, 354-359.

Larsen PF, Hansen MM, Nielsen EE, Jensen LF, Loeschcke V. 2005. Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in Abrackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples. Heredity 95, 136–143.

Launey S, Krieg F, Morin J, Laroche J. 2003. Five new microsatellite markers for northern pike (Esox lucius). Molecular Ecology Notes 3, 366-368.

Lin SJ, Defossez PA, Guarente L. 2000. Requirement of NAD and SIR2 for life-span extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science: 289, 2126-2128.

Lucentini L, Palomba A, Lancioni H, Gigharelli L, Natali M, Panara F. 2006. Microsatellite polymorphism in Italian populations of northern pike (Esox lucius L). Fisheries Research 80, 251-262.

Nei M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. The American Naturalist 106, 283-292.

Nicod JC, Wang YZ, Excoffier L, Largiade CR. 2004. Low levels of mitochondrial DNA variation among central and southern European (Esox lucius) populations. Journal of Fish Biology 64, 1442–1449.

Peakall R, Smouse PE. 2006. GenAlEx 6: Genetic Analysis in Excel Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6, 288-295.

Reading BJ, Wills PS, Heidinger RC, Heist JH. 2003. Development of microsatellite markers for muskllange (Esox masquinongy) & cross-species amplification in two other esocids. Molecular Ecology 3, 447-449.

Sekar M, Suresh E, Kumar NS, Nayak SK, Balakrishna C. 2009. Microsatellite DNA markers a fisheries perspective. Part 1: The nature of microsatellites. Aquaculture Asia Magazine, 27-29.

Shaklee JB, Tamaru CS, Waples RS. 1982. Speciation and evolution of marine fishes studied by electrophoretic analysis of proteins. Pacific Science 36,141-157.

Shen XY, Gong QL. 2004. Population genetic structure analysis of the imported turbot seedlings Scophthalmus maximus using RAPD and microsatellite technique. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 35, 332–341.

Thorpe JP, Sole-Cava AM. 1994. The use of allozyme electrophoresis in invertebrate systematics. Zoologica Scripta 23, 3-18.

Wang, J, Chenghui W, Long Q, Yuqing MA, Xinxin Y, Zsigmond J, Sifa L. 2011. Genetic characterization of 18 novel microsatellaite loci in northern pike (Esox lucius). Genetic and Molecular Biology 34, 169-172.

Zebardast L, Jafari HR. 2011. Use of Remote Sensing in Monitoring the Trend of Changes of Anzali Wetland in Iran and Proposing Environmental Management Solution. Environmental Studies 37, 57-64.