Int. J. Biosci.14( 1), 366-378, January 2019
Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack.) is one of the most important medicinal plants in Kalimantan. The growth, phytochemical profile, and antioxidant activity were assessed in Ficus deltoidea growing under four different water field capacity (FC) condition, namely: W1 (40% FC), W2 (60% FC), W3 (80% FC), and W4 (100% FC-control), and investigated for 9 months. This finding showed that the drought stress treatment reduced the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, leaf thickness, and number of branches, chlorophyll number, and the biomass. The highest value of growth parameters was observed under 100% FC-control. The leaves extract contained four secondary metabolites compounds (alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic, and steroid), the stems extract contained seven secondary metabolites compounds (alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic, tannin, steroid, coumarin, and carotenoids), and the fruits have five secondary metabolite compounds (alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic, steroid, and coumarin) in all drought stress treatment. The highest TPC on the stem extract (74.07±0.001 µg GAE/mg extract), TFC (397.44±0.007 µg CE/mg extract) and antioxidant activity on the leaves extract (IC50 = 72.47±0.050 µg/mL) were obtained on W1 40% FC, while the lowest TPC (3.70±0.001 µg GAE/mg extract) and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1238.06±0.003 µg/mL) on the fruits extracts, TFC (146.00±0.001 µg CE/mg extract) on the stem extract were obtained on W4 100% FC. In conclusion, the drought stress treatment (40% FC) was introduced to obtain appreciable the highest TPC, TFC and the antioxidant activity of cultivated F. deltoidea.
Ahmed ZU, Bithi SS, Khan MMiR, Hossain MM, Sharmin S, Rony SR. 2014. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant extracts of Calamus tenuis Roxb and cytotoxic activity of fruit. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2, 645–650. https://doi.org/10.12980/JCLM.2.201414D74
Al-gabbiesh A, Kleinwächter M, Selmar D. 2015. Influencing the contents of secondary metabolites in spice and medicinal plants by deliberately applying drought stress during their cultivation. Jordan Journal of Biological Science 8, 1–10.
Aninbon C, Jogloy S, Vorasoot N, Patanothai A, Nuchadomrong S, Senawong T. 2016. Effect of end of season water deficit on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought. Food Chemistry 196, 123–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.022
Arung ET, Kusuma IW, Christy EO, Shimizu K. 2009. Evaluation of medicinal plants from central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis. Journal of Natural Medicine 63, 473–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-009-0351-7
Azis N, Agarwal R, Mohd Ismail N, Ismail NH, Ahmad KMS, Radjeni Z, Singh HJ. 2017. Possible involvement of RAAS in the mechanism of anti-hypertensive effect of standardized aqueous ethanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea Kunstleri in spontaneously hypertensive rats. International Journal of Cardiology 249, S6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.09.042
Baloǧlu MC, Kavas M, Aydin G, Öktem HA, Yücel AM. 2012. Antioxidative and physiological responses of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivars under PEG-mediated drought stress. Turkish Journal of Botany 36, 707–714. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1111-20
Bettaieb-Rebey I, Jabri-Karoui I, Hamrouni-Sellami I, Bourgou S, Limam F, Marzouk B. 2012. Effect of drought on the biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds. Industrial Crops and Products 36(1), 238–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.09.013
Chung I, Kim J, Lim J, Yu C, Kim S, Hahn S. 2006. Comparison of resveratrol, SOD activity, phenolic compounds and free amino acids in Rehmannia glutinosa under temperature and water stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56, 44–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.01.001
Das S, Bhattacharya SS. 2016. Plant secondary metabolites, in: Siddiqui, M.W., Bansal, V. (Eds.), their roles in stress ecophysiology. Canada Apple Academic Press, Oakville, p 1–38.
Doaa M, Nour KAM. 2012. Impact of salinity and biological and organic treatments on growth, yield and fruits quality of sweet pepper. Mansoura Journal of Plant Production 3, 2883–2902.
Duan H, Zhu Y, Li J, Ding W, Wang H, Jiang L, Zhou Y. 2017. Effects of drought stress on growth and development of wheat seedlings. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 19, 1119-1124. https://doi.org/10.101610.17957/IJAB/15.0393
Espinozaa A, Martína AS, López-Climentb M, Ruiz-Laraa S, Gómez-Cadenasb A, Casarettoa J. 2013. Engineered drought-induced biosynthesis of a-tocopherol alleviates stress-induced leaf damage in tobacco. Journal of Plant Physiology 170, 1285–1294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.04.004
Farahani HA, Valadabadi SA, Daneshian J, Khalvati MA. 2009. Evaluation changing of essential oil of balm (Melissa officinalis L.) under water deficit stress conditions. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 3(5), 329–333.
Geerts S, Raes D. 2009. Deficit irrigation as an on-farm strategy to maximize crop water productivity in dry areas. Agricultural Water Management 96, 1275–1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.04.009
Gharibi S, Tabatabaei BES, Saeidi G, Goli SAH. 2016. Effect of drought stress on total phenolic, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity of Achillea Species. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 178(4), 796-809. https://doi.org/10.101610.1007/s12010-015-1909-3
Hakiman M, Maziah M. 2009. Nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activities in aqueous extract of different Ficus deltoidea accessions. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 3(3), 120–131.
Jaafar HZ, Ibrahim MH, Mohamad Fakri NF. 2012. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth). Molecules 17, 7305–7322. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17067305
Jaleel CA, Sankar B, Murali PV, Gomathinayagam M, Lakshmanan GMA, Panneerselvam R. 2008. Water deficit stress effects on reactive oxygen metabolism in Catharanthus roseus; impacts on ajmalicine accumulation. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 62, 105–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2007.09.026
Khorasaninejad S, Mousavi A, Soltanloo H, Hemmati K. 2011. The effect of drought stress on growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituent of Peppermint Mentha piperita (L .). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5, 5360–5365.
Kiani S, Poormohammed, Maury P, Sarrafi A, Grieu P. 2008. QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Science 175, 565–573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.06.002
Kumari A, Sharma RA. 2015. Estimation of total phenol, flavonoid contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Oxalis corniculata Linn. International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Research 6, 178–181.
Manivannan P, Jaleel CA, Kishorekumar A, Somasundaram R, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R. 2007. Changes in antioxidant metabolism of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. by propiconazole under water deficit stress. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 57, 69–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2007.01.004
Manurung H, Kustiawan W, Kusuma IW. Marjenah. 2017a. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack). AIP Conference Proc. 1813 ed RA Nugroho (American Institute of Physics), p 020007, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4975945
Manurung H, Kustiawan W, Kusuma IW. Marjenah. 2017b. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) on different plant organs and ages. Jornal of Medicinal Plants Studies 5, 120–125. http://www.plantsjournal.com/archives/2017/vol5issue6/PartB/5-6-23-951.pdf
Molyneaux P. 2004. The use of the stable free radical diphenyl picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin Journal Science Technology 26(2), 211–219. www.thaiscience.info/journals/Article/SONG/10462423.pdf
Morshedloo MR, Craker LE, Salami A, Nazeri V, Sang H, Maggi F. 2017. Effect of prolonged water stress on essential oil content, compositions and gene expression patterns of mono- and sesquiterpene synthesis in two oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) subspecies. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 111, 119–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.11.023
Nacif de-AI, Mazzafera P. 2005. Effect of water and temperature stress on the content of active constituents of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 43, 241–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2005.01.020
Ncib S, Boukhris M, Le E, Adesso S, Autore G, Marzocco S, Hanchi B. 2018. Effects of water deficit and rehydration on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in methanolic root barks extracts of Rhus tripartitum and Periploca laevigata subsp. angustifolia. Industrial Crops and Products 111, 353–359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.10.034
Petropoulos SA, Daferera D, Polissiou MG, Passam HC. 2008. The effect of water deﬁcit stress on the growth, yield and composition of essential oils of parsley. Scientia Horticulturae 115, 393–397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2007.10.008
Saeidnejad AH, Kafi M, Khazaei HR, Pessarakli M. 2013. Effects of drought stress on quantitative and qualitative yield and antioxidative activity of Bunium persicum. Turkish Journal of Botany 37, 930–939. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1301-2
Safikhani FA, Sharifabad HH, Elah SSA, Ashourabadi ES, Seyenezhad SM, Abbaszadeh B. 2007. The effect of drought stress on percentage and yield of essential oil and physiological characteristics of Dracocephalum moldavica L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research 23, 86–99.
Selmar D. 2008. Potential of salt and drought stress to increase pharmaceutical significant secondary. Landbauforsch. – vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research 58, 139–144. https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/bitv/dk040469.pdf
Shao HB, Chu LY, Shao MA, Jaleel CA, Mi HM. 2008. Higher plant antioxidants and redox signaling under environmental stresses. Comptes Rendus Biologies 331, 433–441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2008.03.011
Specht JE, Chase K, Macrander M, Graef GL, Chung J, Markwell JP, Germann M, Orf JH, Lark KG. 2001. Soybean response to water : A QTL analysis of drought tolerance. Crop Science 41, 493–509.
Sulaiman MR, Hussain MK, Zakaria ZA, Somchit MN, Moin S, Mohamad AS, Israf DA. 2008. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Ficus deltoidea aqueous extract. Fitoterapia 79, 557–561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2008.06.005
Tahkokorpi M, Taulavuori K, Laine K, Taulavuori E. 2007. After-effects of drought-related winter stress in previous and current year stems of Vaccinium myrtillus L. Environmental and Experimental Botany 61, 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.03.003
Zhu Z, Liang Z, Han R. 2009. Saikosaponin accumulation and antioxidative protection in drought-stressed Bupleurum chinense DC. Plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 66, 326–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.03.017