International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Immune Responses and Current Treatment Strategies of Covid-19

By: Ujalla Tanveer, Laiba Bukhari, Maheen Shafiq, Zarreen Sajjad, Sana Riaz, Saim Ahmed, Muhammad Kaleem Usman, Abdul Qadeer, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Mubasher Rauf

Key Words: Coronaviruses, SAR-CoV-2, Pathogenesis, Immune responses, Diagnosis, Treatments.

Int. J. Biosci. 18(5), 20-28, May 2021.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/18.5.20-28

Certification: ijb 2021 0215 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

An ongoing novel highly contagious pneumonia outbreak started in Wuhan, sprawling capital of central china’s province, Hubei, in late December 2019. The disease was officially named by the World Health Organization on February 12, 2020, as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary host of SARS-CoV-2 is linked with bat species; however, the intermediate host is still unclear. The COVID-19 spread rapidly across the world because of person-person transmission. The SARS-CoV-2 stimulates both the cellular and humoral immunity mediated by viral-specific B and T cells. Cases of COVID-19 infection exhibit several clinical complications, for example, fever, tiredness and dry cough. Diagnosis is mostly depending on epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestation, and a few through examining auxiliary tissues. This review has provided a brief introduction of SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, diagnosis, immune responses, and treatments and future perspectives.

| Views 28 |

| Views 28 |

Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Immune Responses and Current Treatment Strategies of Covid-19

Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. 2020. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Adverse Respiratory Disease 24, 91–8.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005

Su S, Wong G, Shi W, Liu J, Lai ACK, Zhou J, Liu W, Bi Y, Gao GF. 2016. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses. Trends in  Microbiology 24, 490–502.

Zheng J. 2020. SARS-CoV-2: an Emerging Coronavirus that Causes a Global Threat. Internaional Journal Biological Sciences 16, 1678–85.

Xie M, Chen Q. 2020. Insight into 2019 novel coronavirus — an updated intrim review and lessons from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. International Journal of Infectious Disease.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.071

Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, Tan YY, Chen SD, Jin HJ, Tan KS, Wang DY, Yan Y. 2020. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status. Military Medicines and Respiration.

Chen S, Yang J, Yang W, Wang C, Bärnighausen T. 2020. COVID-19 control in China during mass population movements at New Year. Lancet 395, 764–6.

Zu ZY, Jiang M Di, Xu PP, Chen W, Ni QQ, Lu GM, Zhang LJ. 2019. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China. Radiology.

Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. 2019. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature  Reviews in Microbiology.

Hoffmann M, Kleine WH, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, Herrler G, Wu NH, Nitsche A. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Cell. 271–80.

Shirato K, Kawase M, Matsuyama S. 2018. Wild-type human coronaviruses prefer cell-surface TMPRSS2 to endosomal cathepsins for cell entry. Virology 517, 9–15.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2017.11.012

Ramanathan K, Antognini D, Combes A, Paden M, Zakhary B, Ogino M, Maclaren G, Brodie D. 2020. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre – including this for unrestricted research re-use. 19–21.

Shin JS, Jung E, Kim M, Baric RS, Go YY. 2020. Saracatinib inhibits middle east respiratory syndrome-coronavirus replication in vitro. Viruses 10.

Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, Huang J, Gan J, Huang X, Bucci E, Piacentini M, Ippolito G, Melino G. 2020. COVID-19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses. Cell Death Difference.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0530-3

Goh KJ, Choong MC, Cheong EH, Kalimuddin S, Duu Wen S, Phua GC, Chan KS, Haja Mohideen S. 2020. Rapid Progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Review of Current Understanding of Critical Illness from COVID-19 Infection. Annal Academic Medical Singapore 49, 1–9.

Ahmed T, Shah RJ, Rahim SEG, Flores M, O’Linn A. 2020. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Internist’s Perspective. Cureus; 2019, 3–9.

Nikolich-Žugich J. 2018. The twilight of immunity: Emerging concepts in aging of the immune system review-article. Nature Immunology 19, 10–9.

Desai A, Grolleau-Julius A, Yung R. 2010. Leukocyte function in the aging immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 87, 1001–9.

Chinn IK, Blackburn CC, Manley NR, Sempowski GD. 2012. Changes in Primary Lymphoid Organs With Aging $watermark-text $watermark-text $watermark-text. Seminar Immunology 24, 309–20.

Ahn DG, Shin HJ, Kim MH, Lee S, Kim HS, Myoung J, Kim BT, Kim SJ. 2020. Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30, 313–24.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, Shi Z, Hu Z, Zhong W, Xiao G. 2020. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Respiration 30, 269–71.

Runfeng L, Yunlong H, Jicheng H, Weiqi P, Qinhai M, Yongxia S. 2020. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company’ s public news and information.

Jawhara S. 2020. Could Intravenous Immunoglobulin Collected from Recovered Coronavirus Patients Protect against COVID-19 and Strengthen the Immune System of New Patients? International Journal Molecular Science, 21.

Watkins J. 2020. Preventing a covid-19 pandemic. BMJ 368, 1–2.

http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1136/bmj.m810

Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD. 2020. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet 395, 931–4.

Barnard DL, Day CW, Bailey K, Heiner M, Montgomery R, Lauridsen L, Chan PKS, Sidwell RW. 2006. Evaluation of immunomodulators, interferons and known in vitro SARS-CoV inhibitors for inhibition of SARS-CoV replication in BALB/c mice. Antiviral Chemical Chemotherapy 17, 275–84.

Devaux CA, Rolain J, Colson P, Raoult D.  2020. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company’ s public news and information.

Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Seidah NG, Nichol ST. 2005. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virology Journal 2, 1–10.

Dong L, Hu S, Gao J. 2020. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug Discovery and Therapy 14, 58–60.

Zhang Q, Wang Y, Qi C, Shen L, Li J. 2020. Response to “Comments on’ Zhang et al.: Clinical trial analysis of 2019-nCoV therapy registered in China’ “. Journal of Medical Virology 2019–20.

Ujalla Tanveer, Laiba Bukhari, Maheen Shafiq, Zarreen Sajjad, Sana Riaz, Saim Ahmed, Muhammad Kaleem Usman, Abdul Qadeer, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Mubasher Rauf.
Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Immune Responses and Current Treatment Strategies of Covid-19.
Int. J. Biosci. 18(5), 20-28, May 2021.
https://innspub.net/ijb/pathogenesis-diagnosis-immune-responses-and-current-treatment-strategies-of-covid-19/
Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update