Impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on seed germination and seedling growth of Cichorium intybus L.

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/01/2015
Views (212) Download (9)

Impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on seed germination and seedling growth of Cichorium intybus L.

Zarin taj Pilevar, Homa Mahmoodzadeh, Ali Eshaghi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 1), 438-445, January 2015.
Certificate: JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


A medicinal plant was evaluated for the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using germination and seedling growth of Cichorium intybus L. The experimental treatments included four concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (10, 50, 100 and 200 ppm ) and control without carbon nanotubes. Results indicated that among the Cichorium intybus germination indices, germination percentage, mean germination time and weighted germination index was not affected by treatments, however phytotoxicity was observed at 10 ppm CNTs , since a significant reduction in RGP,GR and GI was observed. In addition, plumule length, radicle length, seedling fresh and dry weight and vigor index were not affected by carbon nanotubes concentrations, significantly. Seedling fresh weight at 100 ppm concentration of carbon nanotubes was higher than the untreated control. It is concluded that treatment with multi-walled carbon nanotubes reatments have more inhibitory effects on germination indices of Cichorium intybus in comparison to seedling growth phase.


Gachon CM, Langlois-Meurinne M, Saindrenan P. 2005. Plant secondary metabolism glycosyltransferases: the emerging functional analysis. Trends in Plant Science 10, 542-549.

Adhikari RM, Shah BK, Palayangoda SS. 2009. Solvent dependent optical switching in carbazole-based fluorescent nanoparticles. Langmuir 7, 2402-2406.

Bu HY, Chen XL, Wang YF. 2007. Germination time, other plant traits and phylogeny in an alpine meadow on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Community Ecology 8, 221 – 227.

Canas JE, Long M, Nations S, Vadan R, Dai L, Luo M, Ambikapathai R, Lee EH, Olszyk D. 2008. Effects of functionalized and nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on root elongation of select crop species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27,1922-1931

Figueroa JA, Armesto JJ. 2001. Community-wide germination strategies in a temprate rainforest of southern chile: ecological and evolutionary correlates. Austrulian Journal of Botany 49, 411 – 425.

Guo L, Morris DG, Liu X, Vaslet C, Hurt RH, Kane AB. 2007. Iron bioavailability and redox activity in diverse carbon nanotube samples. Chemistry of Materials 19, 3472-3478

González-Melendi, P, Fernández-Pacheco R, Coronado MJ, Corredor E, Testillano PS, Risueño MC, Marquina C, Ibarra MR, Rubiales D, Pérez-de-Luque A. 2008. Nanoparticles as smart treatment-delivery systems in plants: assessment of different techniques of microscopy for their visualization in plant tissues. Annals of Botany 101, 187-195

Isaure MP, Fayard B, Saffet G, Pairis S, Bourguignon J. 2006. Localization and chemical forms of cadmium in plant samples by combining analytical electron microscopy and X-ray spectromicroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 61, 1242–1252.

Klaine SJ, Alvarez PJJ, Batley GE. 2008. Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior fate, bioavailability, and effects. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27,1825–1851.

Khodakovskaya M, Dervishi E, Mahmood M, Xu Y, Li Z, Watanabe F, Biris AS. 2009. Carbon nanotubes are able to penetrate plant seed coat and dramatically affect seed germination and plant growth. ACS Nano 3,3221–3227 .

Khodakovskaya MV, de Silva K, Nedosekin DA, Dervishi E, Biris AS, Shashkov EV, Galanzha EI , Zharov VP. 2011. Complex genetic, photothermal, and photoacoustic analysis of nanoparticle-plant interactions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108, 1028–1033.

Lin B. 2007. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth. Environmental Pollution 150,243–250

Lin S, Reppert J, Hu Q, Hudson J S, Reid ML, Ratnikova TA, Rao AM, Luo H, Ke PC. 2009. Uptake, translocation, and transmission of carbon nanomaterials in rice plants. Small 5, 1128-1132.

Liu Q, Chen B , Wang Q, Shi X, Xiao Z, Lin J, Fang X. 2009. Carbon nanotubes as molecular transporters for walled plant cells. Nano Letters 9, 1007–1010

Mariya K, Enkeleda D, Meena M. 2009. Carbon nanotubes are able to penetrate plant seed coat and dramatically affect seed germination and plant growth. ACS Nano 3,3221-3227.

Memon AR, Schroder P. 2009. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to Phytoremediation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16, 162–175.

Poland CA, Duffin R, Kinloch I, Maynard A, Wallace WA, Seaton A, Stone V, Brown S, MacNee W, Donaldson K. 2008. Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study. Natural. Nanotechnology 3,423–428.

Pairis S, Sarret G, Willems G, Isaure MP, Marcus MA, Fakra SC, Frerot H, Geoffroy N, Manceau A, Saumitou-Laprade P. 2009. Zinc distribution and speciation in Arabidopsis halleri ×Arabidopsis lyrata progenies presenting various zinc accumulation capacities. New Phytologist 184, 581–595.

Shaymurt T, Gu J, Xu C, Yang Z, Zhao Q, Liu 2012. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on garlic (Allium sativum L.): A morphological study. Nanotoxicology, .6(3), 241-248.

Stampoulis D, Sinha SK, White JC. 2009. Assay-dependent phytotoxicity of nanoparticles to plants. Environ Sci Technol. 1,9473–9479

Torney F, Trewyn B, Lin VSY, Wang K. 2007. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles deliver DNA and chemicals into plants. Natural Nanotechnology 2(5),295-300

Villagarcia H , Dervishi E , de Silva K, Biris AS, Khodakovskaya M. 2012. surface chemistry of carbon nanotubes impacts the growth and expression of water channel protein in tomato plants. Small 8, 2328-2334 .

Wild E, Jones KC. 2009. Novel method for the direct visualization of in vivo nanomaterials and chemical interactions in plants. Environmental Science & Technology 43,5290–5294

Wu GL , Du GZ. 2007. Germination is related to seed mass in grasses (poaceae) of the eastern Qinghai– Tibetan plateau, china. Nordic Journal of Botany 25 , 361 – 365

Zhang Z, He X, Zhang H, Ma Y , Zhang P , Ding Y, Zhao Y. 2011. Uptake and distribution of ceria nanoparticles  in  cucumber  plants.  Metallomics  3, 816–822

Zhao Y, Xing G , Chai Z. 2008. Nanotoxicology: Are carbon nanotubes safe? Natural Nanotechnology 4,191–192

Zheng L, Hong F , Lu S. 2005. Effect of nano-TiO2 on strength of naturally aged seeds and growth of spinach. Biological Trace Element  Researsc 104,83–91.