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Implications of extrapolative factors and their interplay to develop thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed schizophrenics

Research Paper | August 1, 2017

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Arif Malik, Shumaila Saleem, Mahwish Arooj, Aasia kalsoom, Rabia Rasool, Sulayman Waquar

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Int. J. Biosci.11( 2), 125-135, August 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/11.2.125-135


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Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating mental sickness which may be caused by neurological and behavioral deformities. Disruption of thyroid hormones maybe involved in the progression of schizophrenia. Inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-9 and NO), Thyroid biomarkers (T4, T3, TSH, TgAb, TPOAb), Antioxidants include Vitamins (A,C,E,D,B6,B9,B12) and SOD, GPx, GRx, MDA and homocysteine were investigated among 40 schizophrenic females and 20 healthy individuals. Thyroid biomarkers T4 (18.26pmol/L) and TSH (5.29IU/L) values were calculated higher in diseased subjects as compared to controls (11.25pmol/L) and (3.26IU/L). T3 values (3.62µg/dl) seem less in schizophrenic females as compared to healthy controls (5.26µg/dl). Auto-antibodies demonstrate high levels in schizophrenics than normal controls TgAb (p=0.0139), TPOAb (p=0.0110). SOD (0.19U/ml), GSH (5.26µmol/L) and CAT (3.26U/L) have low levels in female schizophrenics as compared to healthy controls. GPx are elevated while GRx levels are reduced in disease state. The vitamins (VIT-A, VIT-C, VIT-E, VIT-D, VIT-B6, VIT-B9, VIT-B12) levels showed decreased trend in schizophrenic females rather than healthy controls. Oxidative markers IL-6, TNF-α, NO, MMP-9 and MDA are also concerned with the disease due to their increased levels (5.66pg/ml), (41.26pg/ml), (31.26µmol/L), (77.28ng/ml) and (1.69µmol/L) as compared to controls. The present study evident the association of thyroid hormones in schizophrenia. Pituitary-Thyroid hormone axis has interesting knot with dopaminergic, serotonergic, glutametergic and GAB Aergic systems in schizophrenia. Thyroid hormones along with increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity have severe detrimental effects with the metabolic activity of mature brain.


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Implications of extrapolative factors and their interplay to develop thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed schizophrenics

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