Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | March 1, 2020

| Download 2

In vitro assessment and comparative efficacy on antioxidative effects of petroleum ether and methanol extract of different citrus fruit peels in Bangladesh

Md. Maniruzzaman, Ashik Mosaddik, Simin Shabnam Lopa, Md. Mahadi Hasan, Ashraful Mahmud Tuhin, Md. Abu Zubair, Md. Shahidul Haque

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.16(3), 321-336, March 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/16.3.321-336


IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


The prevention of oxidative stress caused by microorganisms or other adverse environmental stimuli is not clarified well.  The current study has been undertaken regarding this phenomenon along with petroleum ether and methanol extraction of five varieties of citrus fruit peels, C. limittoids, C. hystrix, C. medica, C. reticulate and C. lemon. For total antioxidant capacity during petroleum ether extraction, different concentrations of peel extract were used.  C. reticulate and C. medica were found to be potential showing higher antioxidant capacity and the absorbance were increased dose dependently when compared to catechin. Other varieties also showed a increased absorbance indicating higher antioxidative effects. Similarly, the extracts of peels after methanol treatment were found to have a higher absorbance where the absorbance was increased dose dependently and C. hystrix and C. limittoids showed potent effect.  Other varieties were shown to have increased antioxidative effects because of their increasing absorbance.  The reducing power capacity during petroleum ether extraction was enhanced dose dependently while C. reticulate and C. medica showed higher absorbance showing higher reducing power capacity.  The absorbance of different concentrations of extract in methanol was examined and the values were increased similarly with increasing concentrations.  C. reticulate and C. medica showed higher effect when compared to ascorbic acid.  Other varieties also showed enhanced effect and the effects were assumed to be potential in both petroleum ether and methanol extract.  Therefore, all five varieties are recognized to have bioactive compounds with diverse clinical importance in response to adverse biotic or abiotic stress.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

In vitro assessment and comparative efficacy on antioxidative effects of petroleum ether and methanol extract of different citrus fruit peels in Bangladesh

Abudayeh ZH, Al Khalifa II, Mohammed SM, Ahmad AA. 2019. Phytochemical content and antioxidant activities of pomelo peel extract. Pharmacognosy Research 11, 244–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/pr.pr_180_18

Abbas ZK, Saggu S, Sakeran MI, Zidan N, Rehman H, Ansari AA. 2015. Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22(3), 322–326. 2014 Epub Nov 20 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.11.015.

Al-Juhaimi FY. 2014. Citrus fruits by-products as sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential. Pakistan Journal of Botany 46(4), 1459–1462.

Biswas M, Haldar PK, Ghosh AK. 2010. Antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging effects of fruits of Dregea volubilis. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine 1(1), 29–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.71670

Chanda S, Dave R, Kaneria M. 2011. In vitro antioxidant property of some Indian medicinal plants. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants 5(2), 169–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/rjmp.2011.169.179

Divya PJ, Jamuna P, Jyothi LA. 2016. Antioxidant properties of fresh and processed Citrus aurantium fruit.  Cogent Food & Agriculture 2, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1184119

Dar MA, Masoodi MH, Wali AF, Mir MA, Shapoo NS. 2014. Antioxidant potential of methanol root extract of Mentha arvensis L. from Kashmir region. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4(03), 050–057. http://dx.doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2014.40311

Dhanavade MJ, Jalkute CB, Ghosh J, Sonawane KD. 2011. Study antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel extract. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2(3), 119–122.

Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Teissedre PL. 1995. Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected California wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 43, 890–894. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00052a008

Hossain MM,  Mondal M, Morad RU, Uddin N,  Das A, Hossain MS, Kamal MM,  Islam MF, Wahed TB, Chowdhury MMH. 2018. Evaluation of bioactivities of methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Cassia renigera seed.  Clinical Phytoscience 4(33), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-018-0091-x

Islam MZ, Hossain MT, Hossen F, Mukharjee SK, Sultana N, Paul SC. 2018. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Crotalaria pallidastem extract. Clinical Phytoscience 4(8), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-018-0066-y

Jan S, Khan MR, Rashid U, Bokhari J. 2013. Assessment of antioxidant potential, total phenolics and flavonoids of different solvent fractions of Monotheca Buxifolia fruit. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives 4(5), 246–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.09.003

Kasote DM, Katyare SS, Hegde MV, Bae H. 2015. Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications. International Journal of Biological Sciences 11(8), 982–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.12096

Ke ZL, Pan Y, Xu XD, Nie C, Zhou ZQ. 2015. Citrus flavonoids and human cancers. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 3(5), 341–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-3-5-9

Krishnamurthy A, Rathinasabapathi B. 2013. Oxidative stress tolerance in plants: novel interplay between auxin and reactive oxygen species signaling. Plant Signaling & Behavior 8, e25761. http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/psb.25761

Mehra S, Srivastava R, Shukla S, Mathew J, Mehra M. 2015. In-vitro comparative study on antimicrobial activity of five extract of few citrus fruit: peel & pulp vs gentamicin. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 9(1), 165–173.

Mukhija M, Kalia AN. 2014. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of Zanthoxylum alatum stem bark. Journal of Applied Pharmacy 6(4), 388–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.21065/19204159.6.4.357

Ortuno A, Baidez A, Gomez P, Arcas MC, Porras I, García-Lidón A, Del Rio JA. 2006. Citrus paradise and Citrus sinensis flavonoids: Their influence in the defence mechanism against Penicillium digitatum. Food Chemistry 98(2), 351–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.06.017

Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxi-dative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Japanese Journal of Nutrition 44, 307–315. https://doi.org/10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307

Pertuzatti PB, Barcia MT, Rodrigues D, da Cruz PN, Hermosín-Gutierrez I, Smith R, Godoy HT. 2014. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries. Food Chemistry 164, 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.114

Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. 1999. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry 269, 337–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1999.4019

Rajendran P, Nandakumar N, Rengarajan T, Palaniswami R, Gnanadhas EN, Lakshminarasaiah U, Gopas J, Nishigaki I. 2014. Antioxidants and human diseases. Clinica Chimica Acta 436, 332–347. Epub 2014 Jun 13 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2014.06.004.

Singh M, Jha A, Kumar A, Hettiarachchy N, Rai AK, Sharma D. 2014. Influence of the solvents on the extraction of major phenolic compounds (punicalagin, ellagic acid and gallic acid) and their antioxidant activities in pomegranate aril. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51(9), 2070–2077. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1267-0

Sawalha SMS, Arráez-Román D, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. 2009. Quantification of main phenolic compounds in sweet and bitter orange peel using CE–MS/MS. Food Chemistry 116(2), 567–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.003

Singh R, Singh N, Saini BS, Rao HS.  2008. In vitro antioxidant activity of pet ether extract of black pepper. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 40(4), 147–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.43160

Treml J, Šmejkal K. 2016. Flavonoids as potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 15(4), 720–738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12204

Toh JJ, Khoo HE, Azrina A. 2013. Comparison of antioxidant properties of pomelo [Citrus grandis (L) Osbeck] varieties. International Food Research Journal 20, 1661–8.

Ullah R, Sajid M, Ahmad H, Luqman M, Razaq M, Nabi G, Fahad S, Rab A. 2014.  Association of gibberellic acid (GA3) with fruit set and fruit drop of sweet orange. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 4(2), 54–59.

Upadhyay R, Jha A, Singh SP, Kumar A, Singh M. 2013. Appropriate solvents for extracting total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid from different kinds of millets. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(1), 472–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-0976-0

Wang H, Cao GH, Prior RL. 1996. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 44, 701–705. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf950579y

Zou Z, Xi W, Hu Y, Nie C, Zhou Z. 2016. Antioxidant activity of citrus fruits. Review. Food Chemistry 196, 885–896. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.072. Epub 2015 Sep 21

Zhang H, Xi W, Yang Y, Zhou X, Liu X, Yin S, Zhang J, Zhou Z. 2015. An on-line HPLCFRSD system for rapid evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of Citrus fruits. Food Chemistry 172, 622–629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.121


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background