Influence of fluoride on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in selected fluoride endemic areas of Tanzania

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2019
Views (231) Download (18)

Influence of fluoride on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in selected fluoride endemic areas of Tanzania

Godson Epafra, Revocatus L. Machunda, Gabriel M. Shirima
Int. J. Biosci.15( 5), 275-281, November 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Diabetes Mellitus prevalence in developing countries and globally is on the increase due to various factors and its association with excessive fluoride contamination is not much elucidated. This study aims to determine fluoride levels in serum along with capillary fasting blood sugar levels of individuals in selected area of Ngarenanyuki ward (fluoride endemic) in Arusha region, located at the slopes of volcanic mount Meru, which is connected to East African Great Rift Valley System. A cross sectional survey was conducted to assess fluoride levels in human sera (Measured by minitype Ion-Selective Electrode) and capillary fasting blood sugar levels (Measured by Automatic glucometer) in the community, after overnight fasting and to look for its relationship. The survey was conducted whereby, 50 individuals, aged 25 years old and above volunteered and consented for fluoride levels in serum determination along with capillary fasting blood sugar test. The 32 participants enrolled were females while18 were males. The mean age of the study participants was 48.7 (13.4) years. The median (range) fasting blood sugar was 4.8 (3.0 – 14.7) mmol/l and fluoride levels in serum was 0.0543 (0.0324 – 0.2200) mg/l. The correlation between the levels of fluoride in serum and fasting blood sugar was (Pearson`s correlation coefficient (r) = – 0.0632 and p < 0.663). There was no significant correlation between fluoride levels in serum and fasting blood sugar levels. The findings indicate that fluoride levels in serum does not influence the increase of fasting blood sugar levels. Further work to include other confounders is therefore recommended in order to understand broadly the influence of fluoride in hyperglycemia.


Chiba FY, Sumida DH. 2012. Effect of fluoride intake on carbohydrate metabolism, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling 45, 236–241.

Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, Rocha JD, Ohlrogge AW, Malanda B. 2018. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045, IDF Diabetes Atlas.

Gorchev HG, Ozolins G. 2011. WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Chronicle 38, 104–108.

Ingle NA, Dubey HV, Kaur N, Sharma I. 2014. Defluoridation techniques : Which one to choose.

Kiagho B, Machunda R, Hilonga  A, Njau KN.  2013. Performance of water filters towards the removal of selected pollutants in Arusha , Tanzania.

Klesa  E. 1987. Determination of Inorganic Fluoride in Blood with a Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrode 255, 253–255.

Malago J, Makoba E, Muzuka ANN. 2017. Fluoride Levels in Surface and Groundwater in Africa:  A Review. American Journal of Water Science and Engineering 3(1), 1–17.

Martínez-Mier EA. 2012. Fluoride. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary  and Alternative Medicine 17, 28–32.

Mwangome M, Geubbels E, Klatser P, Dieleman M. 2018. Perceptions on diabetes care provision among health providers in rural Tanzania : a qualitative study.

Rambhade S, Chakraborty AK, Patil UK, Rambhade A. 2010. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 2, 7–25.

Ramires  I, Pessan JP, Levy FM, Rodrigues  M H, de Almeida  BS, Kato MT, Buzalaf MA. 2007. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Applied Oral Science 15, 140–143.

Rogalska A, Kuter K, Aleksandra Ż, Anna G. 2017. Fluoride Alteration of (3 H) Glucose Uptake in Wistar Rat Brain and Peripheral Tissues.

Stanifer JW, Cleland CR, Makuka GJ, Egger R, Maro V, Maro H, Barengo C. 2016. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Complications of Diabetes in the Kilimanjaro Region : A Population-Based Study from Tanzania, 1–13.

Štepec D, Ponikvar-svet M. 2019. Fluoride in Human Health and Nutrition 03, 255–275.

URTTHR. 2013. The United Republic of Tanzania. Ministry of Water. Water Status Report. WSDP.

Xiang  QY, liang YX, Chen BH, Wang CS, Zhen SQ, Chen XD. 2004. Serum fluoride and dental fluorosis in two villages 37, 28–37.

Yoder KM, Mabelya L, Robison VA, Dunipace  AJ, Brizendine EJ, Stookey GK. 1998. Severe dental fluorosis in a Tanzanian population consuming Location, fluoride in magadi, other elements found in magadi, and malnutrition are. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 26, 382–93.