J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(2), 486-492, August 2014
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of drought stress on quality and quantity yield of Thymus vulgaris under field and laboratory condition in Karaj, Iran. The study was conducted as randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. Treatments were included 100% moisture (control), 80% (optimum irrigation), 60% (deficit stress), 40% (fairly high stress) and 20% (high stress) of field capacity. Before plant harvesting, morphological traits were recorded. Then plants were cut from about 3cm above ground and aerial organs yield was evaluated after drying at 60-70°C. Essential oil was taken by using Clevenger and water distillation method during 2.5h and its yield was calculated. Soluble sugars, proline, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron were measured. Results indicated that drought stress significantly affected plant height, flowering shoot yield, oil percent, oil yield, thymol percent, carvacrol percent, amount of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, proline, soluble sugars, sodium, magnesium, iron and RWC (α≤0.01). Mean comparisons showed that the highest flowering shoot yield belonged to 80% of field capacity with 1728kg/ha. The highest (2.22%) and the lowest (0.74%) oil percent were observed in 20 and 100% of field capacity, respectively. 80, 60 and 40% of field capacity had the maximum of oil yield with 19.26, 18.478 and 17.309kg/ha, respectively. The maximum of thymol percent belonged to 80 (42.37%), 60 (42.52%) and 40% (41.4%) of field capacity. The highest magnesium amount observed in 80 (0.74ppm) and 60% (0.63ppm) of field capacity. 100 and 80% of field capacity showed the highest iron with 0.53 and 0.67ppm, respectively.
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