Isolation, characterization and identification of Diazinon degrading bacteria from the soil and gut of macrotermes

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2013
Views (305) Download (17)

Isolation, characterization and identification of Diazinon degrading bacteria from the soil and gut of macrotermes

Hellen Adhiambo Ogot, Hamadi Iddi Boga, Nancy Budambula, Muniru Tsanuo, Darius Otiato Andika
J. Bio. Env. Sci.3( 9), 70-79, September 2013.
Certificate: JBES 2013 [Generate Certificate]


Diazinon degrading bacteria were isolated from the soil and gut of fungus cultivating termites Macrotermes michaelseni using MM7 media supplemented with pesticide as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolates were gram negative rods the isolates from the soil were designated DS2, DS3 and DS5 while from termite gut was designated DT2. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that diazinon degrading isolate DS2 (from the soil) is closely related to Achromobacter xylosoxidan AF508101 (100%), isolate DT2 from termite gut is closely related to Klebsiella oxytoca AB004754 (99.7%). Whereas isolates DS3 and DS5 , both from the soil are closely related to p., AY082447 (99%). The ability of the isolates to degrade diazinon highlights their potential to be used in bioremediation.


Alexander M. 1985. Biodegradation of organic chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology 18, 106-111.

Atlas R.M. 1995. Handbook of microbiological media for the examination of food. CRC press London.

Atlas R M, Unterman R. 1999. Bioremediation. in: Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2nd Edition, American Society of Microbiology Press, Washington, 666-681

Atterby   H, Smith    N, Chaudhry QStead D. 2002. Exploitation of microbes and plants to clean up contaminated environment. Pesticide Outlook Feb. 2002 9-13.

Balthazor T M , Hallas, L E. 1986. Glyphosate-degrading microorganisms from industrial activated sludge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.51: p. 432-434.Reviews: Aislabie

Ball H, Johnson H, Reinhard M, Sporman M. 1996. Initial reactions in anaerobic ethylbenzene degradation by a denitrifying bacterium straim EB1. Journal of Bacteriology. 178 5755-5761.

Binks P R, French C E, Nicklin S, Bruce N C. 1996. Degradation of pentaerythritol by Enterobacter cloacae PB2, Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 62:1214-1219

Bizet B. 1995. Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens,Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams. Pathology and Biology (Paris) 43: 258-263 (1995).

Boga H I. 2000. Numerical and physiological characterization of microbiota in intestinal tracks of soil feeding termites. PhD thesis. University of Konstanz, Germany.

Breznak J A. 1982. Intestinal micro biota of termites and other xylophagus insects Annual Review of Microbiology 36: 323-343

Brune A, Emersion D, Breznak A. 1995. The termite gut Microflora as an oxygen sink: microelectrode determination of oxygen and pH gradient in the guts of lower and higher termites. Applied Microbiology, 61: 2861-2687

Cappucino J G, Sherman N. 2002 Microbiology A Laboratory Manual 6th Edition Pearson Education, Inc, Sanfransisco, C A

Charles R W, Barrie S. 1983. Pesticides Manual: A World Compendium Published by Crydon: British Crop Protection Council.

Collins N. M. 1981. The role of termites in decomposition of wood and leaf litter in southern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Ocealogia 51 389-399

Embley T.M, Stackebrandt E. 1994. The molecular phylogeny and systematics of Actinomycetes. Annual Review of Microbiology, 48: 257-289

Farmer J T. 1995. Enterobactericeae: Introduction and identification In: Manual of clinical microbiology (6th Edition) (P.R Murray, E.J.Baron, M.A Pfaller, F.C Tenover and R.H Yolken Editors), pp. 435-450. American society of Microbiology, Washington D.C.

Felsenstein J. 1981 Evolutionary trees for DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 17 368-376.

Gibson D T, Subramanian V. 1984. Microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. In Gibson, D. T (ed.), Microbial degradation of organic compounds. Marcel Dekker, inc., New York , NY, p.181-252.

Gibson J, Hardwood C S. 2002. Metabolic diversity in aromatic compounds utilization by anaerobic bacteria. Annual review of microbiology, 56: 345-369

Grant DJW. 1967. Kinetic aspects of growth of Klebsiella aerogenes with some benzoid carbon source. Journal of General Microbiology. 46: 213-224.

Grimond F, Grimond PAD, Richard C. 1991. The genus Klebsiella In: A Balows, HG Truper, M Dworkin, et al. (eds). The Prokaryotes (2nd ed). New York, USA: Springer-Verlag Publishers, pp. 1217–24 and 1249–61.

Hallberg J B. 1989. Pesticide pollution of ground water in the humid US. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 26:299-369.

Holt G J, Kreig R N, Sneath A H, Staley T, Williams T S. 1994 Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology (9th Edition) William and Wilkins, Baltimore.

Karns J S, Mulbry W W, Nelson J O, Kearney P C. 1986 Metabolism of Carbofuran by pure bacterial culture. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 25:211-217.

Lijinsky W. 1991. The formation and occurrence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon associated with food. Mutation research. 259:251-261.

Lin C. 2001 Biodegradation of tetracyanonickelate (TCN) by Klebsiella oxytoca.

Murray    D W, Sowden L C, Calvin R J. 1984. Bacteroides cellusolven sp. nov., a cellolytic species from sewage sludge. International Journal of Systematic bacteriology , 34 (2): 185-187.

Neuhauser E F, Hartenstein R. 1976. Degradation of phenol, cinnamic acid and quinic acid in terrestrial crustacean, Oniscus asellus. Soil biology and biochemistry, 8: 95-98

Neuhauser E F, Hartenstein R, Connors W J. 1978. Soil invertebrates and the degradation of vanillin, cinnamic acid, and lignins. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 10:431–435.

Saitou E, Nei M. 1987. The neighbour joining: a new method for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4: 406-425.

Schink B, Brune A, Schenell S. 1992 Anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds In G. Winkelman (ed) Microbial degradation of organic compounds VCH, Wienhein Germany. p 220-242

Schink B, Philipp, Muller J. 200) Anaerobic degradation of Phenolic compounds. naturswissenschaften , 87: 12-23

Sethunathan N, and Yoshida T. 1973.A Flavobacterium sp. that degrades diazinon and parathion as sole carbon sources. Canada Journal of Microbiology, 19, 873-875

Slaytor M. 1992. Cellulose digestion In termites and cockroaches. What role do symbiots play? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 103:775-784.

Stach E M, Maldonado A L, Masson G D, Ward C A, Goodfellow M, Bull T A. 2003. Statistical approaches for estimating actinobacterial diversity in marine sediment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 6189-6200

Tariq S, Benedict C O, Muhamma A , William T. 2003 Enrichment and isolation of endosulphan degrading microorganisms. Journal of environmental quality. 32: 47-54

Topp E, Hanson  R S, Ringelberg  D B, White DC, Wheatcroft R. 1993. Isolation and characterization of an N-methylcarbamate insecticide-degrading methylotrophic bacterium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Oct; 59 (10):3339-49

Wood T G, Johnson R A.1986 The Biology, physiology and ecology of termites. In: Economic impact and control of social insects, S.B Vinsion (ed) pp 1-69 Praeger New York

Yabuuchi E, Kawamura Y, Kosako Y, Ezaki T. 1998 Emendation of genus Achromobacter and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano) and proposal of Achromobacter ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac) comb. nov., Achromobacter piechaudii (Kiredjian et al.) comb. nov., and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Ruger and Tan) comb. nov. Microbiology and Immunology l 42:429-38.

Yuste L, Corbella E, Turiegaro M, Karlso U, Puyet A, Rojo F. 2000. Characterization of bacterial strains able to grow on high molecular mass residue from the crude oil processing. Federation of European Microbiology Society Microbiology and Ecology.32, 69-75.