International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Flood risk assessment in Saharan regions. A case study (Bechar region, Algeria)

By: Mohammed Madi, Mohammed Amin Hafnaoui, Ali Hachemi, Mosbah Ben Said, Abderrahmane Noui, Abdelhalim Mghezzi Chaa, Nora Bouchahm, Yacine Farhi

Key Words: Precipitation, Frequency analysis, Flood extents, Ephemeral river

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 16(1), 42-60, January 2020.

Certification: jbes 2020 0245 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Intensive storm rainfall induced flooding is one of the most severe and devastating natural disasters in arid regions. In recent years, urban expansion and consolidation, changing demographic features within floodplains makes the urban environment transformed dramatically and results in additional flood risks. In this research, Gumbel’s distribution was used to analyze maximum daily precipitation data from 1963 to 2012 (49 year) and calculate maximum instantaneous flows with different return periods, namely, 2-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-, 100-, and 1000-year. The peak flows from precipitation frequency analysis were input into the hydraulic models (HEC-RAS) to find the corresponding flood extents in a study area located in the upstream of Bechar basin. The results from HEC-RAS model were then used in integration with ArcGIS to compile a floodplain maps. Flood extents through floodplain maps, areas that are vulnerable to flooding hazards have been identified. Floodplain map analysis indicated that 2.679km2 with the percentage of 23% is likely to be flooded under 100 year return period flood. In addition, show that the traffic roads and buildings surroundings Ephemeral river are more susceptible to flooding. Based on the results of this analysis, assist planners and policy makers can develop an effective strategy of flood management related to Ephemeral River overflowing through Bechar city.

| Views 27 |

| Views 27 |

Flood risk assessment in Saharan regions. A case study (Bechar region, Algeria)

Ahmad S, Simonovic SP. 2006. An intelligent decision support system for management of floods. Water Resources Management 20(3), 391-410.

Al Saudmm. 2015. Flood Control Management for the City and Surroundings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Springer Natural Hazards, Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London, pp 17-32.

Arab A, Lek S, Lounaci A, Park YS. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns of benthic invertebrate communities in an intermittent river (North Africa). Ann Limnol Int J Lim 40, 317-327.

Arnell NW, Gosling SN. 2014. The impacts of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Climatic Change. DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5

Arnold JG, Allen PM, Morgan DS. 2001. Hydrologic model for design and constructed wetlands. Wetlands 21(2), 1-16.

Arnold JG, Srinivasan R, Muttiah RS, Williams JR. 1998. Large-area hydrologic modeling and assessment: Part I. Model development. J. American Water Resour. Assoc. 34(1), 73-89.

Azhar H. 2017. Flood Modelling by using HEC-RAS, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 50 Number 1.

Bachir A, Rhinane H, Mouchrif A. 2012. Apport des systèmes d’information géographiques (SIG) à la simulation de crues, cas de l’oued Bouskoura à Casablanca, Travaux de l’institut scientifique, rabat, série géologie &géographie physique 23, 25-31 (In French)

Bashir A, Muhammad SK, Mohsin JB, Zakir HD. 2010. Hydrological modelling and flood hazard mapping of Nullah Lai. Proc. Pakistan Acad. Sci. 47(4), 215-226.

Bouhellala K, Cherif EA. 2014. Etude Et Moyen De Lutte Contre Les Inondations Au Niveau Du Bassin Versant De L’oued Bechar (Algérie), Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS, Vol. 2, Issue 1, ISSN : 2052-5583 (In French).

Boulghobra N. 2006. Protection de la ville Skikda contre l’inondation, l’essai de PPRI. Thèse Magister, Université de Batna, p. 179.

Brunner GW. 2010. HEC-RAS, River analysis system hydraulic manual, Davis, CA: Hydrologic Engineering Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Brych K, Dittrt F, Elias V. 2002. Development of flood boundary maps of urban areas using HEC-RAS software. FRIEND 2002—Regional Hydrology: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice (Proceedings of the Fourth international FRIEND Conference held at Cape Town. South Africa. March 2002). IAHS Publ. no. 274.

Chang HK, Tan YC, Lai JS, Pan TY, Liu TM, Tung CP. 2013. Improvement of a drainage system for flood management with assessment of the potential effects of climate change. Hydrological Sciences Journal 58 (8), 1581-1597.

Changnon SA, Kunkel KE. 1995. Climate-related fluctuations in Midwestern flooding. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 121, 326-334.

Chen SH. 2015. Hydraulic structures. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 01-39.

Chin D. 2006. Water Resources Engineering. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Chow VT. 1964. Handbook of applied hydrology: a compendium of water-resources technology. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Cooray K. 2010. Generalized Gumbel distribution. Journal of Applied Statistics 37(1), 171-179.

CTGREF. 1980. Synthèse nationale sur les crues des petits bassins versants. Fascicule 3 : la méthode CRUPEDIX (Juillet 1980).

Daifallah T, Hani A, Sayad M. 2017. Prédétermination des débits de crue par différentes méthodes. Cas du bassin versant d’El Kébir Ouest à Ain-Charchar (Nord-Est algérien). Rev. Sci. Technol., Synthèse 34, 74 -84.

Dankers R, Feyen L. 2009. Flood hazard in Europe in an ensemble of regional climate scenarios. J Geophys Res Atmos 114. Doi: 10.1029/2008jd011523.

Darshan J, Manthan R, Maulik J. 2014. Application of 1-D HEC-RAS model in design of channels, International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering 1(7), 103-107 Available from: ISSN: 2349-2163.

Dawadi S, Ahmad S. 2012. Changing climatic conditions in the Colorado River Basin: implications for water resources management. Journal of Hydrology 430, 127-141.

De Moel H, Van Alphen J, Aerts JCJH. 2009. Flood maps in Europe-methods, availability and use, doi: 10.5194/nhess-9-289-2009. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9(2), 289.

Debo TN, Reese AJ. 2003. Municipal stormwater management. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.

Dewan AM. 2013. Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London, pp 01-127.

Donald CH, Richard LY. 2005. Comparison of Peak Discharge and Runoff Characteristic Estimates from the Rational Method to Field Observations for Small Basins in Central Virginia. Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5254.

Evans SY, Moore D, Butcher P. 2002. Flood Risk Mapping and Control of Development in Floodplains in UK, Proceeding of the Second International Symposium on Flood Defense, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, Volume I, pp 171-178.

FAO. 1981. Arid Zone Hydrology – Irrigation and Drainage Paper N° 37.

Farooq M, Shafique M, Khattak MS. 2018. Flood frequency analysis of river swat using Log Pearson type 3, Generalized Extreme Value, Normal, and Gumbel Max distribution methods. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 11, 216, doi.org/10.1007/s12517-018.

Frigui HL. 1995. Débits maxima de projet – Apport moyen annuel – Apport solide en Tunisie. Publication du Ministère de l’Agriculture de la République Tunisienne (Direction Générale des Ressources en Eau), p. 23

Fuller WE. 1914. Flood flows. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 77, 564-617

Gaume E. 2006. Post flash-Flood Investigation-Methodological Note. Floodsite European Research Project, Report D23.2., p. 62 <http://www. floodsite.

Ghorbel A. 1984. Détermination des débits maxima à partir des paramètres régionaux. Publication du Ministère de l’Agriculture de la République Tunisienne (Direction des Ressources en Eau), p. 24

Green C, van der Veen A, Wierstra E, Penning-Rowsell El. 1994. Vulnerability refined: analyzing flood impacts. In: Penning-Rowsell EC, Fordham M (eds) Flood across Europe: flood hazard assessment, modelling and management. Middlesex University Press, London, pp 32-68

Groisman PY, Knight RW, Karl TR. 2001. Heavy precipitation and high streamflow in the contiguous United States: trends in the twentieth century. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82(2), 219-246.

Gumbel EJ. 1941. The return period of flood flows, Annals of Mathematical Statistics 12 (2), 163-190.

Hachemi A, Benkhaled A. 2016. Flood-Duration-Frequency modeling. Application to wadi Abiodh, Biskra. Larhyss 27, 277-297.

Hachemi A, Hafnaoui MA, Madi M. 2019. Effects of morphometric characteristics on flash flood response at arid area (case study of wadi deffa, el bayadh city, algeria). Journal Algérien des Régions Arides (JARA), 13(2), 50-57.

Hafnaoui MA, Ben Saïd M, Fekraoui F, Hachemi A, Noui A, Djabri L. 2009. Impacts des facteurs climatiques et morphologiques sur les inondations de Doucen. Journal Algérien des Régions Arides, Revue scientifique annuelle 08, 81-94.

Hafnaoui MA, Hachemi A, Ben Saïd M, Noui A, Fekraoui F, Madi M, Mghezzi A, Djabri L. 2013. Vulnérabilité aux inondations dans les régions sahariennes-cas de Doucen- Journal Algérien des Régions Arides N° Spécial 148-155.

Hafnaoui MA, Madi M, Hachemi A, Farhi Y. 2020. El Bayadh city against flash floods: case study. Urban Water Journal. Doi: 10.1080/ 1573062X. 2020. 1714671.

Hapuarachchi HAP, Wang QJ, Pagano TC. 2011. A review of advances in flash flood forecasting. Hydrological Processes 25, 2771-2784.

Harberg RJ. 1997. Planning and Managing Reliable Urban Water Systems, American Water Works Association, Denver, Co.

Hasbaia M, Adoui H. 2015. Contribution à l’étude du régime des crues dans les bassins semi-arides algériens. Cas du bassin versant du Hodna. International Conference on African Large River Basins Hydrology

Hirabayashi Y, Kanae S, Emori S, Oki T, Kimoto M. 2008. Global projections of changing risks of floods and droughts in a changing climate. Hydrol Sci J 53(4), 754-772.

Hirabayashi Y, Kanae S. 2009. First estimate of the future global population at risk of flooding. Hydrol Res Lett 3, 6-9.

Hirabayashi Y, Mahendran R, Koirala S, Konoshima L, Yamazaki D, Watanabe S, Kim H, Kanae S. 2013. Global flood risk under climate change. Nat Clim Chang. Doi: 10.1038/nclimate1911

Hirsch RM, Ryberg KR. 2012. Has the magnitude of floods across the USA changed with global CO2 levels? Hydrol. Sci. J., 57, 1-9.

Hirsch RM. 1979. Synthetic hydrology and water supply reliability. Water Resources Research                 15(6), 1603-1615.

Hosking JRM, Wallis JR. 1997. Regional frequency analysis. Cambridge University Press, London, Cambridge.

IPCC. 2007. Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (S. Solomon et al., eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jenkinson AF. 1955. The frequency distribution of the annual maximum (or minimum) of meteorological elements. Quart J Roy Meteor Soc           81, 158-171

Kallel R. 1979. Évaluation des débits de crues maxima en Tunisie. Publication du Ministère de l’Agriculture de la République Tunisienne (D. R. E. S.), p. 30

Kamal V, Mukherjee S, Singh P, Sen R, Vishwakarma CA, Sajadi P, Asthana H, Rena V. 2016. Flood frequency analysis of Ganga River at Haridwar and Garhmukteshwar. Appl Water Sci: 1-8

Karl TR, Knight RW. 1998. Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity in the United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79, 231-241

Kottegota NT, Rosso R. 1997. Statistics, Probability, and Reliability for Civil and Environmental Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Kuichling E. 1889. The relation between rainfall and the discharge of sewers in populous districts. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 20(402), 1-60

Kunkel KE, Andsager K, Easterling D. 1999. Long-term trends in extreme precipitation events over the conterminous United States and Canada. Journal of Climate 12(8), 2515-2527

Lehner B, Doll P, Alcamo J, Henrichs T, Kaspar F. 2006. Estimating the impact of global change on flood and drought risks in Europe: a continental, integrated analysis. Clim Chang 75, 273-299

Leopold LB, Wolman MC, Miller JP. 1964. Fluvial processes in geomorphology. San Francisco (CA): W.H. Freeman and Co.

Lin X. 1999. Flash floods in arid and semi-arid zones, IHP-V, Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 23, International Hydrological Programme, UNESCO, Paris, p. 65

Lloyd EH. 1970. Occurrence interval in the presence of persistence. Journal of Hydrology 10 (3), 291-298

Loucks DP, Van Beek E. 2005. Water Resource Systems Planning and Management: An Introduction to Methods, Models and Applications, UNESCO, WL – Delft Hydraulics, Paris, France, p. 680

Maidment DR. 1993. Handbook of Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p. 1424

McCuen RH. 2003. Modeling hydrologic change statistical methods. Lewis Publisher

McKay GA. 1970. Precipitation, Section II in Gray, D.M., ed., Handbook on the principles of hydrology: Port Wash­ington, New York, Water Information Center, Inc., p. 111

Millard SP, Neerchal NK. 2001. Environmental Statistics with S Plus. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Millington N, Das S, Simonovic SP. 2011. The Comparison of GEV, Log-Pearson Type 3 and Gumbel Distributions in the Upper Thames River Watershed under Global Climate Models. [Online]. http://ir. lib.uwo.ca/wrrr/40/. Accessed 10 feb 2017

Modarres M, Kaminsky M, Krivtsov V. 2009. Reliability Engineering and Risk Analysis: A Practical Guide, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, London

Mosquera-Machado S, Ahmad S. 2007. Flood hazard assessment of Atrato River in Colombia. Water Resources Management 21(3), 591-609

Mulvaney TJ. 1851. On the use of self-registering rain and flood gauges in making observations of the relations of rainfall and of flood discharges in a given catchment. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers of Ireland 4, 18-31

Nalbantis I, Efstratiadis A, Rozos E, Kopsiafti M, Koutsoyiannis D. 2011. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modeling of human-modified hydrosystems. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(3), 743-758

Nash JE, Sutcliffe JV. 1970. River flow forecasting through conceptual models part I – a discussion of principles. Journal of Hydrology 10 (3), 282-290. Doi: 10.1016/0022-1694(70)90255-6. ISSN 0022-1694

NRCS. 1986. Urban hydrology for small watersheds (Technical Report 55). Springfield, VA

Parker DJ. 2000. Floods, volumes I and II. London and New York: Routledge

Pilgrim DH, Cordery I. 1993. Flood runoff in Maid­ment, D.R., ed., Handbook of hydrology, New York, McGraw-Hill, pp 9.1-9.42

Ponce VM. 1989. Engineering hydrology–Principles and practices: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc., p. 642

Popovska C, Ivanoski D. 2009. Flood risk assessment of urban areas, Risk Management of Water Supply and Sanitation Systems. Springer Science, pp 101-113

Robert WCJ, Karen F, William J. 2012. Auto-Integrating Multiple HEC-RAS Flood-line Models into Catchment-wide SWMM Flood Forecasting Models AWRA Hydrology & Watershed Management Technical Committee 10(1), 1-15

Roy S, Mistri B. 2013. Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge for an Ungauged River: A Case Study of the Kunur River, West Bengal. Geography Journal, ID 214140, p. 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/214140

Rulfova Z, Buishand A, Roth M, Kysely J. 2016. A two-component generalized extreme value distribution for precipitation frequency analysis. J Hydrol 534, 659–668

Safaripour M, Monavari M, Zare M, Abedi Z, Gharagozlou A. 2012. Flood Risk Assessment Using GIS (Case Study: Golestan Province, Iran). Pol. J. Environ. Stud 21(6), 1817-1824

Saghafian B, Golian S, Ghasemi A. 2014. Flood frequency analysis based on simulated peak discharges. Nat Hazards 71, 403-417

Sami G, Hadda D, Mahdi K. 2016. Flood hazard map in the city of Batna (Algeria) by hydraulic modeling approach, Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Seria Geografie Year XXVI 1, 86-93

Schaller N, Otto FEL, Van Oldenborgh GJ, Massey NR, Sparrow S, Allan MR. 2014. The heavy precipitation event of May-June 2013 in the upper Danube and Elbe basins [in explaining extreme events of 2014 from a climate perspective]. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 96(9), S69-S72

Sein KK, Myint T. 2016. Flood Hazard Mapping using Hydraulic Model and GIS: A Case Study in Mandalay City, Myanmar. Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal 03(1).

DOI: 10.14456/ssstj.2016.4

Şen Z. 2018. Flood Modeling, Prediction, and Mitigation. Springer International Publishing, p. 431

Shroder J. 2014. Editorial Foreword of Coastal and Marine Hazards, Risks, and Disasters. Hazards and Disasters Series. Book Aid International, p. 572

Siswanto, Van der Schrierc G, Van Oldenborghc GJ, Van den Hurkc B, Aldrianb E, Swarinotob Y, Sulistyab W, Sakyab AE. 2017. A very unusual precipitation event associated with the 2015 floods in Jakarta: an analysis of the meteorological factors. Weather and Climate Extremes 16, 23-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wace

Siswanto, Van Oldenborgh GJ, Van der Schrier G, Lenderink G, Van den Hurk B. 2015. Trends in high-precipitation events in Jakarta made the flooding of January 2014 more likely [In Explaining extreme Events of 2014 from climate perspective]. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 96, S131-S135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS -D-15-00128.1

Sohn W, Kim JH, Li MH. 2015. Low Impact Development Applications in Urban Watersheds: Efficacy Evaluation by Imperviousness Connectivity Estimations

Sokolovsky SL. 1968. River flow. Hydro-meteorological publications, Leningrad, p. 539

Sudha Y. 2012. A Hybrid Approach of Integrating HEC-RAS and GIS Towards the Identification and Assessment of Flood Risk Vulnerability in the City of Jackson, MS. Journal of Geographic Information System 1(1), 7-16. Available from:

DOI: 10.5923/ j.ajgis.20120101.02

Te Linde AH, Aerts JCJH, Kwadijk JCJ. 2010. Effectiveness of flood management measures on peak discharges in the Rhine basin under climate change. Journal of Flood Risk Management 3, 248-269

Teegavarapu RSV. 2012. Floods in a Changing Climate-Extreme Precipitation. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 01-224

Thakali R, Kalra A, Ahmad S. 2016. Understanding the Effects of Climate Change on Urban Stormwater Infrastructures in the Las Vegas Valley. Hydrology 3(4), 34. DOI: 10.3390/hydrology

Thakur B, Parajuli R, Kalra A, Ahmad S, Gupta R. 2017. Coupling HEC-RAS and HEC-HMS in Precipitation Runoff Modelling and Evaluating Flood Plain Inundation Map. 240-251. Sacramento, California: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress

Thomas HA. 1948. Frequency of minor floods,” Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers 35(1), 425-442

Tung YK. 1999. Risk/Reliability-Based Hydraulic Engineering Design, Chapter 7, Hydraulic Design Handbook, edited by L. Mays, McGraw Hill, New York

Turazza D. 1880. Trattato di idrometria o di idraulica pratica. Padova, Italy: F. Sacchetto

UNESCO. 1979. Map of the World Distribution of Arid Regions: Explanatory Note; MAB Technical Notes; UNESCO: Paris, France

UNESCO. 1999. Flash floods in arid and semi-arid zones. Prepared in the framework of the International Hydrological Programme by the Working Group of Project H-5-2 (IHP-IV). Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 23, Paris, France

Van Oldenborgh GJ, Philip S, Aalbers E, Vautard R, Otto F, Haustein K, Habets F, Singh R, Cullen H. 2017. Rapid attribution of the May/June 2016 flood inducing precipitation in France and Germany to climate change. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5194 hess-2016-308

Viessman WJ, Lewis GL. 2002. Introduction to hydrology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Vogel RM, Castellarin A. 2017. Risk, Reliability and Return Periods and Hydrologic Design, Chapter 78, Handbook of Hydrology, editor in chief, V.P. Singh, McGraw Hill Book Co

Vogel RM. 1987. Reliability indices for water supply systems. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 113(4), 563-579

Volpi E, Fiori A. 2014. Hydraulic structures subject to bivariate hydrologi­cal loads: return period, design, and risk assessment. Water Resources Research 50, 885-897. DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014214

Von Mises R. 1954. La distribution de la grande de n valeurs, Rev. Math. Union Interbalcanique, pp 141-160. Reproduced in selected papers of Richard von Mises, II, American Mathematical Society, pp 271-294, Providence, RI

Wang X, Melesse AM. 2005. Evaluation of the SWAT model’s snowmelt hydrology in a northwestern Minnesota watershed. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 48(4), 1359-1376

Wang X, Shang S, Qu Z, Liu T, Melesse AM, Yang W. 2010. Simulated wetland conservation restoration effects on water quantity and quality at watershed scale. Journal of Environmental Management 91(7), 1511-1525

Wang X, Shang S, Yang W, Melesse AM. 2008. Simulation of an agricultural watershed using an improved curve number method in SWAT. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 51(4), 1323-1339

Werren G, Reynard E, Lane SN, Balin D. 2015. Flood hazard assessment and mapping in semi-arid piedmont areas: a case study in Beni Mellal, Morocco. Nat Hazards, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-015-2092-0

WESP. 2014 Report of the united nations on the state of the world economy. United Nations, New York, p. 198

Yamani K, Hazzab A, Sekkoum M, Slimane T. 2016. Mapping of vulnerability of flooded area in arid region. Case study: area of Ghardaïa-Algeria. Model Earth Syst Environ 2, 147. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s40808-016-0183-x

Yen BC. 1970. Risks in hydrologic engineering projects. Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE 96(4), 959-966

Yoshino F, Yoshikawa K. 1985. A study on flood risk mapping. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on erosion, debris flow and disaster prevention, Tsukuba, Japan, pp 499-504

Zhang Y, Cai W, Chen Q, Yao Y, and Liu K. 2015. Analysis of changes in precipitation and drought in Aksu River Basin, Northwest China. Advances in Meteorology, Article ID215840, p. 15

Mohammed Madi, Mohammed Amin Hafnaoui, Ali Hachemi, Mosbah Ben Said, Abderrahmane Noui, Abdelhalim Mghezzi Chaa, Nora Bouchahm, Yacine Farhi.
Flood risk assessment in Saharan regions. A case study (Bechar region, Algeria).
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 16(1), 42-60, January 2020.
https://innspub.net/jbes/flood-risk-assessment-saharan-regions-case-study-bechar-region-algeria/
Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update