A manuscript/article for publication is an original work that presents new knowledge. This new knowledge can be conceptualized in many ways but it is important that it builds upon already existing knowledge, adds to the discipline and makes a convincing case for its own acceptance. In the sections to follow, we will break down each section in detail.
The manuscript should contain sections such as Title, Abstract, Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results & Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgement and finally References. No other subheadings should be given in the manuscript.
How to format a Manuscript (General notes)
Scientific ethics in manuscript writing
A. Title page:
The title page should contain the title of the article, the full names of authors and institutional full addresses for all authors and the email of the corresponding author. Abstract and Keywords should be included.
A good title should contain the fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents of a paper. The title should be.
ii) Author(s) name: Should provide the full name of all authors as Md. Anowar Razvy (or M. A. Razvy)
iii) Authors affiliations: Should provide institutional full address for all assigned authors of the research findings as Department of Plant Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
iv) *Corresponding author(S): The name and email address of the corresponding author should also be included, mentioned on the corresponding author by marking star (*). The corresponding author is fully responsible for any disputes arising due to the publication of his/her manuscript.
For original investigations and brief reports, the abstract is limited to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or references or exaggerated conclusions. A good abstract should (i) state the principal objectives and scope of the investigation, (ii) describe the methodology employed, (iii) summarize the results and (iv) state the principal conclusion.
Keywords should be very selective and appropriate with 5 to 7 keywords. While choosing keywords, imagine you are looking for your article in a certain database. Keywords are important for indexing: they enable your manuscript to be more easily identified and cited. Avoid uncommon abbreviations and general terms.
B. Main Text
Original Investigations and Brief Report contain the section of Introduction, Material, Methods (or Materials and Methods), Results and Discussion (or Results and Discussion).
Provide the necessary background information to put your work into context. The introduction should provide within 2-3 paragraphs based on the type or category of information presented with the motivation and aims of the study.
ii) Materials and Methods/Methodology
It needs to give full details by which competent workers can report the experiment. For materials, include the exact technical specifications and quantities and source or methods of preparation. For methods, the usual order of presentation is chronological. This section must be brief but informative. Clearly explain how you carried out your study according to the following generalized structure:
● Please give an appropriate *sub-heading for each of the categories or methods used or procedure, study areas, analysis etc.
● Write most of this section in the past tense using passive voice. Do not include any results
iii) Results/Case studies
It is the most significant part of a paper. The Results section presents the experimental data to the reader and is not a place for discussion or interpretation of the data. The data itself should be presented in tables and figures. Introduce each group of tables and figures in a separate paragraph where the overall trends and data points of particular interest are noted. You may want to indicate the placement of a particular table or figure in the text. For experimental studies, key statistics such as the number of samples (n), the index of dispersion (SEM, SD) and the index of central tendency (mean, median or mode) must be stated without reference. Include any statistical analysis that was performed and make sure to indicate specific statistical data, such as p-values.
Give an appropriate sub-heading based on the parameters you studied to consider bellows matters.
● Presented each table and figure in the paper must be referred to in the results section without reference.
The discussion section, often the most difficult to write, should be relatively easy if the previous suggestions have been followed. In particular, look to the last paragraph of the introduction. If the work has characterized a phenomenon by studying specific effects, use the results to describe each effect in separate paragraphs. If the work has presented a hypothesis, use the results to construct a logical argument that supports or rejects your hypothesis. If the work has identified three main objectives for the work, use the results to address each of these objectives. A well-defined study that is described in the Introduction, along with supporting results that are presented in the Results section, should ease the construction of the Discussion section. Begin the Discussion section with a brief paragraph that again gives an overview of the work. Summarize the most important findings and, if applicable, accept or reject the proposed hypothesis. Next, identify the most interesting, significant, and remarkable findings that were presented in the Results section, and contrast these findings in light of other studies reported in the literature. It is often informative if a discussion of the potential weaknesses of the interpretation is also included. Finally, at the end of the Discussion section, consider the other works in the literature that address this topic and how this work contributes to the overall field of study.
Finalize the discussion section according to the following criteria –
● The author should be more focused on the justification of the results. The most important part of the discussion is the justification of your own findings not comparing your findings to previous reports.
It is important to include the practical implications of your research in the Conclusions chapter, discussing what the implications are for practitioners, companies etc. Again, first introduce the work and then briefly state the major results. Then state the major points of the discussion. Finally, end with a statement of how this work contributes to the overall field of study. The Conclusions section can be written up by using the following structure.
● Author should present conclusion in one or two paragraphs with the whole maters.
Provide a brief statement acknowledging the efforts of any participants or consultants who are not included as authors of the manuscript. State all of the funding sources for the work, ensuring that the statement adheres to the guidelines provided by the funding institution. Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the References.
vii) Declaration of interests
All authors must declare any conflicts of interest. When submitting your manuscript to the INNSPUB journals, you will be asked whether you have any conflicts of interest. As submitting author, it is your responsibility to ascertain any conflicts of interest from your co-authors and to declare these accordingly. This section is for acknowledging individuals and institutions whose assistance and support the authors wish to mention.
The paper should be prepared in the style of the journal to which the paper is submitted. Guidance on referencing style can be found in the Author Guidelines for the specifically chosen journal, Check the Authors instructions for the correct ‘reference’ format. Include all references that have been cited in the text. The references should be well considered so that they contain all key sources in the field as well as previous studies that support or motivate the present work. However, do not include extraneous references in an effort to simply cite particular authors or journals. It may be appropriate to cite previous publications from your own laboratory. You must use the reference format that is mandated by the journal to which you are submitting the manuscript. Software packages make citing literature particularly easy. References should be cited without numbers and then listed in ascending order at the end of the paper
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ix) Supplementary material
Unpublished material such as tables and figures that relate to the manuscript but are too lengthy to be printed with the manuscript can be submitted online as Supplementary Material. These should be in a final, viewable format such as MS word, Photos, tables and PDF. You will be able to upload this material when you submit your manuscript. Do not include material that has been published previously or is otherwise under copyright restriction.
Final checklist for submission
The authors must ensure that before submitting the manuscript for publication, they have taken care of the following matters: