Int. J. Biosci.16(2), 12-18, February 2020
Surface waters such as lakes and rivers are utilized by many individuals for domestic use including drinking. However, waterborne disease outbreak due to poor quality water of these natural resources has continually caused high morbidity and mortality rates in many areas of the world. Our study focuses on assessing the microbial quality of water in Lake Lanao along Marawi City, Lanao Del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines. We used Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) to determine the general load of heterotrophic bacteria and Multiple Tube Fermentation for total coliform count and determine the presence of the fecal coliform, E. coli. We also run a household survey covering the inhabitants’ use of the lake’s water and self-reported waterborne-related diseases to trigger formulation of right actions in relation to the resulting water quality. Our results showed positive presence of the mentioned water quality indicator bacteria that goes beyond the accepted value of HPC (HPC >500 CFU/ml) and MPN (MPN >16/100ml). These figures indicate that Lake Lanao has poor microbial quality of water and could be risky for human use and consumption. Our team recommends improvement of sources for safe drinking water and sanitation, health teaching with high emphasis on boiling the water prior to use, and further development of this research which includes regular monitoring, identification of specific type of microbial indicators, and correlational studies.
Allen MJ, Edberg SC, Reasoner DJ. 2004. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria—what is their significance in drinking water? International Journal of Food Microbiology 92, 265 – 274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.08.017
Amanidaz N, Zafarzadeh A, Mahvi AH. 2015. The Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci bacteria in the water supply networks. Iranian journal of public health 44, 1685–1692.
An YJ, Kampbell DH, Breidenbach GP. 2002. Escherichia coli and total coliforms in water and sediments at lake marinas. Environmental Pollution 120, 771-778. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00173-2
Andrews G. 2018. Resolving the water pollution crisis in the Philippines: the implications of water pollution on public health and the economy. Pepperdine Policy Review 10.
Besagas RL, Asoy AY, Ceniza MS, Leopoldo GD, Dael NT, Del Rosario RM. 2014. Upland and coastal freshwater sources in Misamis Oriental, Philippines a Comparison of Water Quality. Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology 13, 1-11.
Edokpayi JN, Odiyo JO, Durowoju OS. 2017. Impact of wastewater on surface water quality in developing countries: a case study of South Africa. In: Tutu H, Ed. Water Quality. Rijeka: IntechOpen, 18. https://doi.org/10.5772/66561
Environmental Management Bureau. 2014. National Water Quality Status Report 2006 -2013. Visayas Avenue, Quezon City, Republic of the Philippines: Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Environmental Management Bureau. p. 76. ISSN 1908-6407.
Gall AM, Mariñas BJ, Lu Y, Shisler JL. 2015. Waterborne viruses: a barrier to safe drinking water. Public Library of Science Pathogens 11, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004867
Gargano JW, Adam EA, Collier SA, Fullerton KE, Feinman SJ, Beach MJ. 2017. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water – United States, 2003–2009. Journal of Water and Health 15, 438-450. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2017.301
Haque A, Jewel AS, Masud AA, Rahman S, Hasan J. 2018. Assessment of Bacterial Pollution in Sediment of Padma River, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Current world Environment 13, 66-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.13.1.07
Horn S, Pieters R, Bezuidenhout C. 2016. Pathogenic features of heterotrophic plate count bacteria from drinking-water boreholes. Journal of Water and Health 14, 890–900. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2016.009
Majorin F, Freeman MC, Barnard S, Routray P, Boisson S, Clasen T. 2014. Child feces disposal practices in Rural Orissa: a cross sectional study. Public Library of Science One 9, 1-7.
Nadeem A. 2019. Microbial risk assessment of surface waters in Dhaka. Thesis, BRAC University, Bangladesh, 1-33.
Naga PO. 2010. Lake Lanao: An Ancient Lake in Distress. Integrated Ecosystem Management Program. Province of Lanao del Sur, Marawi City, Philippines.
Okoh A, Odjadjare E, Igbinosa E, Osode A. 2007. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in receiving watersheds. African Journal of Biotechnology 6, 2932-2944. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2007.000-2462
Pachepsky Y, Shelton D, Dorner D, Whelan G. 2014. Can E. coli or thermotolerant coliform concentrations predict pathogen presence or prevalence in irrigation waters? Critical Reviews in Microbiology 42, 384-393. https://doi.org/10.3109/1040841X.2014.954524
Patil GP, Gore SD, Taillie C. 1994. Design and analysis with composite samples: a novel method to accomplish observational economy in environmental studies. Technical Report Number 94-0410, Center for Statistical Ecology and Environmental Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
Shar AH, Kazi YF, Kanhar NA, Soomro IH, Zia SM, Ghumro PB. 2010. Drinking water quality in Rohri City, Sindh, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 9, 7102-7107.
Swistock BR, Sharpe WE, Clark JA. 2000. Water tests: what do the numbers mean? The Pennsylvania State University, 1-28.
Teklehaimanot G, Genthe B, Kamika I, Momba MNB. 2015. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks. Science of the Total Environment 518–519, 441-449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.019
United Ntions. 2017. The sustainable development goals report 2017. In: Jensen L, Ed. New York, USA: United Nations Publications. ISBN 9789211013689.
Verhille S. 2013. Understanding microbial indicators for drinking water assessment: interpretation of test results and public health significance. National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health, 1-12.
Walag AMP, Canencia OP, Fiedler BA. 2018. Water Quality: Mindanao Island of the Philippines. In: Fiedler B, Ed. Translating National Policy to Improve Environmental Conditions Impacting Public Health Through Community Planning. Cham: Springer International Publishing AG, 219-253. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75361-4_12
World Bank. 2013. Philippines: providing sewerage and sanitation services to over 3 million people.
World Health Organization. 2003. Heterotrophic plate counts and drinking-water safety. In: J. Bartram J, Cotruvo J, Exner M, Fricker C, Glasmacher A. Ed. London, UK: IWA Publication. ISBN 1843390256.
World Health Organization. 2016. Protecting surface water for health. Identifying, assessing and managing drinking-water quality risks in surface-water catchment. In: Rickert B, Chorus I, Schmoll I, Ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. ISBN 9789241510554.