Minimization of residential microbial flora on spinach leaves using cobalt 60 to enhance its export potential

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2015
Views (241) Download (22)

Minimization of residential microbial flora on spinach leaves using cobalt 60 to enhance its export potential

Roheena Abdullah, Tayyaba Rafique, Afshan Kaleem, MehwishIqtedar, Mahwish Aftab, Tehreema Iftikhar, Faiza Saleem, ShaguftaNaz
Int. J. Biosci.7( 2), 127-134, August 2015.
Certificate: IJB 2015 [Generate Certificate]


A leafy vegetable particularly spinach locally known as palak, has been part of human diet for many years. Pakistan stands among top ten spinach producing countries in the world and contributes considerably to the income. However, lack of proper storage facilities and microbial attack result in post-harvest losses. Food irradiation reduced storage losses, extended shelf life and improved microbiological and parasitological safety of foods. In present study, flat leaf variety of spinach was exposed to various gamma radiation doses (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy). The microbial flora of spinach before and after irradiation was analyzed to determine significant changes in the population of spoilage microorganisms. In the present study 0.75 kGy proved to be the most beneficial in reducing the microbial flora without affecting the sensory properties of flat leaf spinach and extended the shelf life up to 4days. So, this study can be useful in shelf life enhancement for export purpose.


Adamo M, Brizzi M, Magaudda G, Martinelli G, Plossi-Zappala M, Rochetti F, Savagnone F. 2001. Gamma radiation treatment of paper in different environmental conditions: chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. Restaurator 22, 107-131.

Akhter F, Islam M, Khatun A, Munshi M, Hossain M, Hoque M, Huque R. 2013. Biochemical composition and effects of radiation on sensory, biochemical and physiological quality of fresh spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). International Journal of Biosciences 3, 25-34.

Barkai-Golan R. 2001. Postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables: development and control, ed.Elsvier. 267-279 P.

Benson H. 2001. Microbiological applications lab manual. The McGraw Hill Companies, 265-301 P.

Bon VI, Jacobson A, Monday SR,  Feng  PC. 2008. Microbiological quality of bagged cut spinach and lettuce mixes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, 1240-1242.

Correll JC, Morelock TE, Black MC, Koike ST, Brandenberge LP, Dainello FJ. 1994. Economically important diseases of spinach. Plant Disease 78, 653-660.

Farkas J. 1998. Irradiation as a method for decontaminating food: A review. International Journal of Food Microbiology 44, 189-204.

Geweely NS, Nawar LS. 2006. Sensitivity to gamma irradiation of post-harvest pathogens of pear. International Journal of Agriculture Biology 6 ,710-716.

Gihan GA. 2010. Effect of gamma radiation on microbial load and chemical constituents of banana fruits stored under different temperatures. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 6(4), 431-442.

Gomes CLFDL. 2010. Radiosensitization strategies for enhanced e-beam irradiation treatment of fresh produce. In: (Ed.), Texas A&M University 120-135 P.

GutierrezRodriguez E, Lieth H. J, Jernstedt JA, Labavitch JM, Suslow TV, Cantwell MI. 2013. Texture, composition and anatomy of spinach leaves in relation to nitrogen fertilization. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 93, 227-237.

Holmes B, Willcox W, Lapage S. 1978. Identification of enterobacteriaceae by the ApI 20E system. Journal of Clinical Pathology 31, 22-30.

Jones HE, West HM, Chamberlain PM, Parekh NR, Beresford NA, Crout NM. 2004. Effects of gamma irradiattion on Holcus lanatus and associated microorganisms. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 74, 57-71.

Lal S, Singh R, Kumar R. 2013. Heavy metal concentration and bacterial load on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phyllosphere under different regions in lucknow, uttar pradesh. International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences 4, 2823-2827.

Oladele OO. 2011. Microorganisms associated with the deterioration of fresh leafy indian spinach in storage. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology 2, 2.

Pereson J J, Beecher GR, Bhagwat SA, Dwyer JT, Gebhardt SE, Haytowtiz DB, Holden JM. 2006.Flavanones in grapefruit, lemons, and limes: A compilation and review of the data from analytical literature. Journal of food consumption and analysis 19, 74-80.

Stone H, Bleibaum R, Thomas HA. 2012. Sensory evaluation practices. Academic press, City. 28-86.

Temur C, Tiryaki O. 2013. Irradiation alone or combined with other alternative treatments to control postharvest diseases.African Journal of Agriculture Research 8, 421-434.

Waseem K, Nadeem MA. 2001. Enhancement of production by varying sowing dates, row spacing and frequency of cuttings. Online Journal of Biological Sciences 1, 902-904.

WHO.  1981.  Wholesomeness  of  irradiated  food, World health organization technical report series 659 on line available at.