Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Among Healthy Children of Iligan City, Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2017
Views (238) Download (14)

Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Among Healthy Children of Iligan City, Philippines

Lucilyn Lahoylahoy Maratas, Johanna Marie Cuadra
Int. J. Biosci.11( 5), 140-145, November 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Surveillance and monitoring of nasal carriage of Staphyloccocus aureus and MRSA among the vulnerable pediatric population is a necessity as it is associated with increased risk for development of various infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage and its probable risk factors among healthy children in Iligan City, Philippines. Seventy-three out of the 114 children included in the study were found to be nasal carriers of S. aureus,  where two factors were found to have significant association (p value < 0.001): the use of herbal medicine in the past six months and passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of the 73 isolates, of which 21 isolates (29%) were MRSA. The rate of MRSA colonization in this study is significantly higher than previous published researches and may be attributed to the overcrowded situation in daycare centers. The only identified potential risk factor for MRSA colonization in this study was the manifestation of clinical symptoms of common childhood illness (p=0.000948).


Bessesen MT, Kotter CV, Wagner BD, Adams JC, Kingery S, Benoit JB, Robertson CE, Janoff EN, Frank DN.  2015. MRSA colonization and the nasal microbiome in adults at high risk of colonization and infection. Journal of Infection 71, 649-657.

Bogaert D, van Belkum A, Sluijter M, Luijendijk A, de Groot R, Rumke HC, Verbrugh HA, Hermans PW.  2004. Colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children. Lancet  363, 1871-1872.

Butwin J. 2004. Indiana State Department Health Guidelines for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Indiana Schools. Indiana, United States of America.

Chen CJ, Hsu KH, Lin TY, Hwang KP, Chen PY, Huang YC. 2011. Factors Associated with Nasal Colonization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Healthy Children in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 49, 131-137.

Creech C, Kernodl D, Alsentzer A, Wilson C,  Edwards, K. 2005. Increasing rates of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children. Pediatric Infectious Diseases 24, 617-621.

de Sousa MA, de Lencastre, H. 2004. Bridges from hospitals to the laboratory: genetic portraits of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 40, 101-111.

Elston D. 2007. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 56, 1-16.

Esposito S, Terranova L, Zampiero A, Lerardi V, Rios WP, Pelucchi C, Principi N. 2014. Oropharyngeal and nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage by healthy children. BMC Infectious Diseases 14, 723.

Esposito S, Zampiero A, Terranova L, Montinaro V, Peves Rios W, Scala A, Ansuini V, Galeone C, Principi N. 2013. Comparison of posterior pharyngeal wall and nasopharyngeal swabbing as a means of detecting the carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 32, 1129-1133. 10.1007/s10096-013-1856-2.

Florentino P. 2000. Antibiotic Resistance is a Global Threat. Paper presented at the American Society of Internal Medicine Annual Session.

Hamdan-Partida A, Sainz-Espuñes T, Bustos-Martinez, J. 2014. Isolation of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy carriers in a Mexican community. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 18, 22-26.

Huang Y, Hwang K, Chen P, Chen C, Lin T. 2007. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among Taiwanese children in 2005 and 2006. Journal of  Clinical  Microbiology 45, 3992-3995.

Mertz D, Frei R, Periat N, Zimmerli M, Battegay M, Flückiger U, Widmer A. 2009. Exclusive Staphylococcus aureus throat carriage: at-risk populations. Archives of Internal Medicine 169, 172-178.

Rodriguez EA, Correa MM, Ospina S, Atehortua SL, Jimenez JN. 2014. Differences in Epidemiological and Molecular Characteristics of Nasal Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in Children from a University Hospital and Day Care Centers. PLoS One 9(7).

Tavares DA, Sá-Leão R, Miragaia M, de Lencastre H. 2010. Large screening of CA-MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus colonizing healthy young children living in two areas (urban and rural) of Portugal. BMC Infectious Diseases 10, 110.

Vieira MA, Minamisava R, Pessoa-Júnior V, Lamaro-Cardoso J, Ternes YM, Andre MC, Sqambatti S, Kipnis A, Andrade AL. 2014. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in neonates and children attending a pediatric outpatient clinics in Brazil. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 18(1), 42-47.

Wertheim H,  Melles D, Vos  M, van Leeuwen W, van Belkum A, Verbrugh H, Nouwen, J. 2005. The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 5, 751-762.