Nutrient limitations of the edible sprouts: A review

Paper Details

Review Paper 13/06/2023
Views (465) Download (35)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Nutrient limitations of the edible sprouts: A review

Aruna Kakumanu, Rosaiah Gorrepati, Babu Kakumanu
Int. J. Biosci.22( 6), 133-148, June 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

In recent times people are quite aware of health and nutrition. Both fibers and proteins play an effective role in human nutrition. Even though animal meat contains more protein than plant protein, it is devoid of fibers’. However, plant sources found to be contain both protein and fibers in high amounts. The seeds are good reservoirs for rich proteins and fibers, especially during sprouting. During the germination process seeds release light proteins along with various vitamins i.e Vit. A, B complex vitamins, C – vitamin, E- vitamin and K- vitamin and minerals i.e Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Se and K. Among the seeds pulses showed significant levels of proteins, fibers, vitamins and minerals. Sprouting time and cooking showed significant variations in their nutrient contents and this review clearly emphasizes the changes in sprouts due to time and cooking.

VIEWS 45

AACR 2005. Broccoli sprouts, cabbage, Ginkgo biloba and garlic: a grocery list for cancer prevention. American Association for Cancer Research. Public & Media: News.

Abdul Wajid Khalil, Aurang Zeb, Fazal Mahmood, Saima Tariq, Amal Badshah Khattak, Hamidullah Shah. 2007. Comparison of sprout quality characteristics of desi and kabuli type chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.). Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie- Food Science and Technology 40(6), 937-945. http://dx.doi.org /10.10 16%2Fj.lwt.2006.05.009.

Adi Md Sikin, Claire Zoellner, Syed SH Rizvi. 2013. Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts. Journal of Food Protection 76(12), 2099-2123. http://doi.org/ 10.4315 /0362-028X.JFP-12-437.

Akpapunam M, Achinewhu Simeon. 1985. Effects of cooking, germination and fermentation on the chemical composition of Nigerian Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Qualitas Plantarum Plants Food for Human Nutrition 35, 353-358. http://doi.org/ 10. 1007 /BF01091780.

Akpapunam MA, Igbedioh SO, Aremo I. 1996. Effect of malting time on chemical composition and functional of malting time on chemical composition and functional properties soybean and bambara groundnut flours. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 47(1), 27-33. http://doi.org/10.3109

Alexander JC, Gabriel HG, Reichertz JL. 1984. Nutritional value of germinated barley. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 17, 224-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0315-5463(84) .

Aloo SO, Ofosu FK, Kilonzi SM, Shabbir U, Oh DH. 2021. Edible Plant Sprouts: Health Benefits, Trends, and Opportunities for Novel Exploration. Nutrients 13, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu130

Amal Badshah Khattak, Aurang Zeb, Maazuulah Khan, Nizakat Bibi, Ihsanullah, Mohammad Saeed Khattak. 2007. Influence of germination techniques on sprout yield, biosynthesis of ascorbic acid and cooking ability, in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Food Chemistry 103(1), 115-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.0.

Amarakoon R, Kracmar S, Hoza I, Budinsky P. 2009. The effect of cooking on in vitro digestibility of selected legumes. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae LVII 5, 13-18. https:// doi.org /10.11118/actaun200957050013.

Amit Kumar Jain, Sudhir Kumar, Panwar JDS. 2009. Antinutritional factors and their detoxification in pulses- A Review. Agricultural Reviews 30(1), 64-70. https://www.indianjournals. com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ar&volume=30&issue=1&a

Anita Kataria, Chauhan BM, Darshan Punia. 1989. Antinutrients and protein digestibility (in vitro) of mungbean as affected by domestic processing and cooking. Food Chemistry 32(1), 9-17. https://doi.org

Anna Podsedek. 2005. Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: A review. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie – Food Science and Technology 40, 1-11. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.lwt.2005.07.023.

Attia RS, El-Tabey Shehata AM, Aman ME, Hamza MA. 1994. Effect of cooking and decortication on the physical properties, the chemical composition and the nutritive value of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Food Chemistry 50(2), 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90108-2.

Badshah A, Aurang Z, Sattar A. 1991. Effect of soaking, germination and autoclaving on selected nutrients of rapeseed. Pakistan Journal of Sciences and Industrial Research 34, 446-448.

Barroga CF, Laurena AC, Mendoza EMT. 1985. Polyphenols in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek): Determination and removal. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 33(5), 1006-1009. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00065a056.

Bharathi S, Ramesh MN, Varadaraj MC. 2001. Predicting the behavioural pattern of Escherichia coli in minimally processed vegetables. Food Control 12, 275-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(01)

Bhatty N, Gillian AH, Nagra SA. 2000. Effect of cooking and supplementation on nutritional value of Gram (Cicer arietinum). Nutritional Resources 20, 297-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317%289.

Borade VP, Kadam SS, Salunke DK. 1984. Changes in phytate phosphorus and minerals during germination and cooking of horse gram and moth bean. Qualitatus Plantarum Plamt Foods for Human Nutrition 34, 151. https://link.springer.com/.

Bressani R. 1993. Grain quality of common beans. Food Review International Journal 9, 217-297.

Camacho L, Sierra C, Campos R, Guzman E, Marcus D. 1992. Nutritional changes caused by the germination of legumes commonly eaten in Chile. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición  42(3), 283-90. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1342162/.

Chattopadhyay H, Nandi N, Banerjee S. 1950. Studies on germination. Part III. The effect of germination on the thiamine content of the pulses grown in Bengal. Indian Pharmacy 5, 121-122.

Chavan JK, Kadam SS, Larry R, Beuchat. 1989. Nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 28(5), 401-437. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10408398909527508.

Chitra U, Singh U, Rao PV. 1996. Phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, dietary fiber, and minerals of pulses as influenced by processing methods. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 49(4), 307-316. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01091980.

Chopra S, Sankhala A. 2004. Effect of soaking and sprouting on tannin, phytate and in vitro iron in underutilized legumes – Horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius). Journal of Food Science and Technology 41, 547-550. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/2891084.

Chunling Zhang, Yuyu Zhang, Zhiyi Zhao, Wenfei Liu, Yiqing Chen, Gaoji Yang, Xiaodong Xia, Yanfei Cao. 2019. The application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in pea sprout production to ensure food safety, biological and nutritional quality of the sprout. Food Control 104, 83-90. https://doi.org/10.1016 j.foodcont.2019. 04.

Concepcion Vidal-Valverde, Juana Frias. 1991. Legume processing effects on dietary fiber components. Journal of Food Science 56(5), 1350-1352. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb04.

Costa Giovana, Queiroz-Monici Keila, Reis Soely Oliveira Admar. 2006. Chemical composition, dietary fibre and resistant starch contents of raw and cooked pea, common bean, chickpea and lentil legumes. Food Chemistry 94, 327-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.11.0.

Cross CA, Fung DYC. 1982. The effect of microwave on nutrient value of foods. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 16(4), 355-381. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398209527340.

Cuddeford D. 1989. Hydroponic grass. In Practice. 11(5), 211-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/inpract211.

Deosthale HN, Barai SC. 1949. Study of the mechanism of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid during germination. Indian Journal of Medical Research 37, 101-111.

Devi Chingakham Basanti, Kushwaha Archana, Kumar Anil. 2015. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Food Science and Technology 52, http://doi.org /10.1007/s13197-015-1832-1.

Devi SM, Balachandar, Lee SI, Kim IH. 2014. An outline of meat consumption in the Indian Population – A Pilot Review. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 34(4), 507-514. https://doi.org/10.5851%2Fkosfa.2014.34.4.507.

Devi Th, Choudhary Poonam, Tushir Surya, Tyagi Sanjeev. 2019. Processing interventions to reduce anti-nutrients in legumes and pulses. In: Trends & Prospects in Processing of Horticultural Crops 301-337. https://www.researchgate.net/publ.

Ebert AW. 2022. Sprouts and microgreens-novel food sources for healthy diets. Plants (Basel) 11(4), 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040571.

Ehirim FN, Ezeji CN, Onugha FC, Nwogu OG. 2018. Effect of sprouting time on the nutrient and anti-nutrient properties of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata). IOSR Journal of Environmental Science Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT) 12(7), 01-08. https://www.iosr journals. org/iosr-jestft/papers/Vol12-%20Issue%207/Version

El-Adawy TA, Rahma EH, El-Bedawey AA, El-Beltagy AE. 2003. Nutritional potential and functional properties of germinated mung bean, pea and lentil seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 58, 1-13. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023 /B:QUAL.0000040339.48521.75.

El-Adawy TA. 2002. Nutritional composition and Antinutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination. Plant Food for Human Nutrition 57, 83-97. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1013189620528.

Elfas LG, Rates RP, Bressani YR. 1969. Mezclas vegetales para consumo humano. XVIII. Desarrollo de la mezcla vegetal INCAP 17, abase de semillas leguminosas. Arch Latnoamer Nutrition1 9, 109.

El-Shimi NM, Damir AA, Ragab M. 1984. Changes in some nutrients of fenugreek seeds during germination. Food Chemistry 14, 11-19.  https:// doi.org /10.1016/0308-8146(84)90013-X.

Emanuele Marconi, Stefania Ruggeri, Marsilio Cappelloni, Donatella Leonardi, Emilia Carnovale. 2000. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microstructural characteristics of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) following microwave cooking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(12), 5986-5994. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0008083.

Espin JC, Garcia-Conesa MT, Tomas-Barberan FA. 2007. Nutraceuticals: facts and fiction. Phytochemistry 68, 2986-3008. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.09.014.

Faizal FI, Ahmad NH, Yaacob JS, Abdul HalimLim S, Abd Rahim MH. 2023. Food processing to reduce antinutrients in plant-based foods. International Food Research Journal 30(1), 25-45. https://www.researchgate.net/publication 0.

FAO. 2020. The state of food security and nutrition in the world. Transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 2020. https://www.fao.org/3/ca9692en/online/ca9692en..

Fernandez ML, Berry JW. 1988. Nutritional evaluation of chickpea and germinated chickpea flours. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 38(2), 127-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01091717.

Fernandez-Orozco R, Piskula MK, Zielinski H, Kozlowska H, Frias J, Vidal-Valverde C. 2006. Germination as a process to improve the antioxidant capacity of Lupinus angustifolius L. var. Zapaton. European Food Research and Technology 223, 495-502.

Ghavidel RA, Prakash J. 2007. The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, antinutrients, in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legume seeds. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie – Food Science and Technology 40(7), 1292-1299. https://www.researchgate.net/ publication .

Gouri Das, Anand Sharma, Prabir K Sarkar. 2022. Conventional and emerging processing techniques for the post-harvest reduction of antinutrients in edible legumes. Applied Food Research 2(1), 1-12.  https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.afres.2022.100112.

Graf E, Eaton JW. 1984. Effects of phytate on mineral bioavailability in mice. Journal of Nutrition 114(7), 1192-1198. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn /114.

Guilera Y, Martin-Cabrejas MA, Benítez V, Molla E, Lopez-Andreu FJ, Esteban RM. 2009. Changes in carbohydrate fraction during dehydration process of common legumes. Journal Food Composition and Analysis 22, 678-683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.02.012.

Gujral HS, Angurala M, Sharma P, Singh J. 2011. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of germinated and cooked pulses. International Journal of Food Properties 14(6), 1366-1374. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10942911003672167.

Habiba RA. 2002. Changes in anti-nutrients, protein solubility, digestibility, and HCl-extractability of ash and phosphorus in vegetable peas as affected by cooking methods. Food Chemistry 77(2), 187-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00335-1.

Handa V, Kumar V, Panghal A, Suri S, Kaur J. 2017. Effect of soaking and germination on physicochemical and functional attributes of horse gram flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology 54(13), 4229-4239.  https://doi.org/10.1007%2 Fs13197 -017-2892-1.

Harrison HC. 1994. Growing edible sprotus at home (A3385). University of Wisconsin-Extension (UWEX), Cooperative Extension Publications RP-04-94-1.5M-20-MSC. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Hindu ethic of nonviolence, Hinduism today, February. 1996. http://www.hinduismtoday.com.

Ibrahim SS, Habiba RA, Shatta AA, Embaby HE. 2002. Effect of soaking, germination, cooking and fermentation on antinutritional factors in cowpeas. Nahrung – Food 46(2), 92-95.

Indumathi Gurusamy, Vidhya CS, Bhosale Yuvraj Khasherao, Akalya Shanmugam. 2022. Pulses for health and their varied ways of processing and consumption in India – A review. Applied Food Research 2(2), 100171. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.afres.2022.100171.

Jood S, Chauhan BM, Kapoor AC. 1988. Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of chickpea and black gram as affected by domestic processing and cooking. Food Chemistry 30, 113-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(88)90149-5.

Kataria A, Chauhan BM, Gandhi S. 1988. Effect of domestic processing and cooking on the antinutrients of black gram. Food Chemistry 30, 149-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(88)90152-5.

Kaushik G, Satya S, Naik SN. 2010. Effect of domestic processing techniques on the nutritional quality of the soybean. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 3(1), 39-46. https:// link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12349-009-0079.

Khatoon J, Verma A, Chacko N and Sheikh S. 2011. Utilization of dehydrated curry leaves in different food products. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 2(4), 508-511. https://nopr.niscpr.res.in/bitstream/123456789/133

Khatoon N, Prakash J. 2006. Nutrient retention in microwave cooked germinated legumes. Food Chemistry 97(1), 115-121.

Khatoon N, Prakash J. 2006. Nutritional quality of microwave and pressure cooked rice (Oryza sativa) Varieties. Food Science and Technology International 12(4), 297-305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013206

Khedidja Benouis. 2017. Phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of pulses and their impact on health. Chemistry International 3(3), 224-229. https://bosaljournals.com/chemint/article/view/73.

Khokhar S, Chauhan BM. 1986. Antinutritional factors in moth bean: varietal differences and effects of methods of domestic processing and cooking. Journal of Food Science 51, 591-594. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/2295430.

King Richard, Puwastien Prapasri. 1984. Effect of blanching and soaking on winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 35, 441-446. http://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740350413.

Korant NP, Ramani HR, Patel PS, Rajkumar BK, Sankat KB, Patel MM. 2023. Review on nutritional and anti-nutritional factor of raw, cooked and sprouted cowpea. The Pharma Innovation Journal 12(4), 585-589.https://www.thepharma journal.com/archives/2023/vol12issue4/PartG/12-4-49-611.pdf.

Kumar Yogesh, Basu Santanu, Goswami Deepika, Mridula Devi, Shivhare Uma, Vishwakarma Rajesh. 2021. Anti‐nutritional compounds in pulses: Implications and alleviation methods. Legume Science 4, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/leg3.111.

Lahsaeizadeh A. 2001. Sociological analysis of food and nutrition in Iran. Nutrition and Food Science 31, 129-135. https://www.researchgate.net/publication /237.

Lasekan OO. 1996. Effect of germination on alpha-amylase activities and rheological properties of sorghum (Sorghum biocolar) and acha (Digitaria exilis) grains. Journal of Food Science and Technology 33, 329-331.

Louise A, Berner, Gabriel Becker, Maxwell Wise, Jimmy Doi. 2013. Characterization of dietary protein among older adults in the United States: Amount, animal sources, and meal patterns. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 113(6), 809-815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2013.01.014.

Machado CM, Lamothe L, Ismail B, Nielsen SS. 2007. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. Cereal Foods World 52(5), 263-268. http://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-52-5-0263.

Marton M, Mandoki Z, Csapo-Kiss Z, Csapo J. 2010. The role of sprouts in human nutrition A review. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae 3, 81-117. http://www.acta.sapientia.ro/acta-ali.

Masood Tariq, Shah Hamid, Zeb A. 2014. Effect of sprouting time on proximate composition and ascorbic acid level of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 24, 850-859. http://thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-24-3/27.pdf.

Mehmet Ferit Can, Hayriye Yeşim Can. 2022. Cost-effectiveness of animal protein consumption in Turkey. Ciencia Rural, Santa Maria 52(9), e20210438.

Mehta MB, Mehta B, Bapodra AH, Joshi HD. 2007. Effect of sprouting and heat processing on protein, riboflavin, Vitamin C and niacin content in peas, cowpea, red gram and wheat. Asian Journal of Home Science 2(1&2), 34-38.

Morteza Oghbaei, Jamuna Prakash. 2016. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review. Cogent Food and Agriculture 2(1), 1-15.

Muhammad Hanif, Mansoor Khan Khattak, Inam Ul Haq, Kausar Gul, Ansa Khan, Kaleem Ullah, Ali Khan and Azmat Al. 2019. Effects of temperature and water purity on germination and yield of mungbean sprouts. Sains Malaysiana 48(4), 711-717. http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2019-4804.

Naveeda Khatoon, Jamuna Prakash. 2004. Nutritional quality of microwave-cooked and pressure-cooked legumes. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 55(6), 441-448. https://doi.org /10.1080/09637480400009102.

Nnanna IA, Phillips RD. 1989. Amino acid composition protein quality and water-soluble vitamin content of germinated cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 39(2), 187-200. https://doi.org/10.1007 /bf0109189.

Nonogaki H. 2017. Seed biology updates-Highlights and new discoveries in seed dormancy and germination research. Frontiers in Plant Sciences 8, 524. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00524.

Pam Ismail B, Lasika Senaratne-LenagalaAlicia StubeAnn Brackenridge. 2020. Protein demand: Review of plant and animal proteins used in alternative protein product development and production. Animal Frontiers 10(4), 53-63. https://doi.org/10.1093/af/vfaa040.

Parameswaran KP, Sadasivan S. 1994. Changes in the carbohydrates and nitrogenous components during germination of proso millet, Panicum maliaceum. Plant Food for Human Nutrition 45, 97-102. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01088466.

Patterson Carol Ann, Curran Julianne, Der Tanya. 2016. Effect of processing on antinutrient compounds in pulses. Cereal Chemistry Journal 94(1), 1-41. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-05-16.

Peer DJ, Leeson S. 1985. Feeding value of hydroponically sprouted barley for poultry and pigs, Animal Feed Science and Technology 13(3-4), 183-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(85)90021-5.

Rao DSS, Deosthale YG. 1981. Mineral composition of four Indian food legumes. Journal of Food Science 46, 1962-1963. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1981.tb04534.x.

Ranhotra GS, Loewe RJ, Lehman TA. 1977. Bread making quality and nutritive value of sprouted wheat. Journal of Food Science Nutrition 42, 1373-1375. Http://doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-8-5-4.

Reddy NR, Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK. 1982. Phytases in legumes and cereals. Advances in Food Research 28, 1- 92. https://doi.org/10.1016 /S0065-2628(08)60110-X.

Riddoch CH, Mills CF, Duthie GG. 1998. An evaluation of germinating beans as a source of vitamin C in refugee foods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 115-118. https://doi.org/ 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600524.

Rocha-Guzman N, Gonzalez-Laredo RF, Ibarra-Perez FJ, Nava-Berumen CA, Gallegos-Infante JA. 2007. Effect of pressure cooking on the antioxidant activity of extracts from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Food Chemistry 100, 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1016j.foodch em.

Rosaiah G, Santha Kumari D, Naidu NV, Satyanarayana A. 1994. Sprout quality and sprout yield in different populations of mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad and Tobago) 71(4), 295-298.

Sadawarte SK, Pawar VS, Sawate AR, Thorat PP, Shere PD, Surendar J. 2018. Effect of germination on vitamin and mineral content of horse gram and green gram malt. International Journal of Chemical Studies 6(3), 1761-1764.

Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Anam Layla, Majid Hussain, Muhammad Qamar. 2022. An overview of plant-based protein rich products. A. Manickavasagan et al. (eds.), Plant Protein Foods 27-60. https://www.researchgate.net/publication 546.

Saini Anuradha, Panwar Divyani, Panesar Parmjit. 2019. Bioactive compounds from cereal and pulse processing byproducts and their potential health benefits. Austin Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 6(2), 1-7.

Sattar A, Badshah A, Aurang Z. 1995. Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in germinated rapeseed cultivars. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 47, 63-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01088168.

Satwadhar PN, Kadam SS, Salunkhe DK. 1981. Effects of germination and cooking on polyphenols and in vitro protein digestibility of horse gram and moth bean. Qualitatus Plantarum Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 31, 77-83.

Siljeström M, Westerlund E, Björck I, Holm J, Asp NG, Theander O. 1986. The effects of various thermal processes on dietary fibre and starch content of whole grain wheat and white flour. Journal of Cereal Science 4(4), 315-323.

Sinkovic, Lovro, Barbara Pipan, Filip Sibul, Ivana Nemes, Aleksandra Tepic Horecki, and Vladimir Meglic. 2023. Nutrients, phytic acid and bioactive compounds in marketable pulses. Plants 12(1), 170.

Smirnoff N. 2000. Ascorbic acid: metabolism and functions of a multi-facetted molecule. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 3, 229-235. https:// pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10837263/.

Sood M, Malhotra SR, Sood BC. 2002. Effect of processing and cooking on proximate composition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties. Journal of Food Science and Technology 39, 69-71.

Sumaiya Afrin Zinia, Asmaul Husna Nupur, Poly Karmoker, Abir Hossain, Fahad Jubayer Md, Delara Akhter, Anisur Rahman Mazumder Md. 2022. Effects of sprouting of soybean on the anti-nutritional, nutritional, textural and sensory quality of tofu. Heliyon 8(10), e10878.

Syed Adil Shah, Aurang Zeb, Tariq Masood, Nadia Noreen, Sayed Jaffar Abbas, Muhammad Samiullah, Abdul Alim Md, Asim Muhammad. 2011. Effects of sprouting time on biochemical and nutritional qualities of Mungbean varieties. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(22), 5091-5098.

Taiwo KA, Akanbi C, Ajibola OO. 1997. The effects of soaking and cooking time on the cooking properties of two cowpea varieties. Journal of Food Engineering 33, 337-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0260-8774(97)87278-0.

Tabekhia MM, Luh BS. 1980. Effect of germination, cooking and canning on phosphorus and phytate retention in dry beans. Journal of Food Science 45, 406-408. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1980.tb02631.x.

Tham DM, Gardner CD, Haskell WL. 1998. Potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83(7), 2223-2235. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.83.7.4752.

Torres A, Frias Granito M, Vidal-Valverde C. 2007. Germinated Cajanus cajan seeds as ingredients in pasta products: Chemical, biological and sensory evaluation. Food Chemistry 101, 202-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.018.

Uppal V, Bains K. 2012. Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes. Journal of Food Science and 49(2), 184-191. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs13197-011-0273-8.

Urbano G, Aranda P, Vilchez A. 2005. Effects of germination on the composition and nutritive value of proteins in Pisum sativum L. Food Chemistry 93, 671-679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem. 2045.

Urbano G, Lopez-Jurado M, Frejnagel S, Gomez-Villalva E, Porres JM, Frias J, Vidal-Valverde C, Aranda P. 2005. Nutritional assesment of raw and germinated pea (Pisum Sativum L.) protein and carbohydrate by in vitro and in vivo techniques. Nutrition 21(2), 230-239.

Uwaegbute AC, Iroegbu CU, Eke O. 2000. Chemical and sensory evaluation of germinated cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and their products. Food Chemistry 68, 141-146. https://doi.org/10.1016

Veluppillai S, Nithyanantharajah K, Vasantharuba S, Balakumar S, Arasaratnam V. 2009. Biochmeical changes associated with germinating rice grains and germination improvement. Rice Science 16(3), 240-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-6308(08)60085-2.

Vidal-Valverde CF, Frias J, Sierra I. 2002. New functional legume foods by germination: effect on the nutritive value of beans, lentils and peas. European Food Research and Technology 215, 472-477. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00217-002-0602-2.

Viswanathan P, Kaur R. 2001. Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts. International Journal of Hygiene and Environment Health 203, 205-213. https://doi.org/ 10.1078/s1438-4639(04)70030-9.

Wang N, Hatcher DW, Gawalko EJ. 2008. Effect of variety and processing on nutrients and certain anti-nutrients in field peas (Pisum sativum). Food Chemistry 111, 132-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.foodchem.2008.03.047.

Wang N, Hatcher DW, Tyler RT, Toews R, Gawalko EJ. 2010. Effect of cooking on the composition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.). Food Research International Journal 43, 589-594. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.foodres.2009.07.012.

Wang N, Lewis MJ, Brennan JG, Westby A. 1997. Optimization of germination process of cowpea by response surface methodology. Food Chemistry 58(4), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00200-2.

Webb GP. 2006. Dietary supplements and functional foods. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford UK, 1-120.

Wu L, Ashraf M, Facci M, Wang R, Paterson PG, Ferrie A, Juurlink BHJ. 2004. Dietary approach to attenuate oxidative stress, hypertension, and inflammation in the cardiovascular system. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 101, 7094-7099. https://doi.org/10.1073 %2Fpnas. 0402004101.

Yang F, Basu TK, Ooraikul B. 2001. Studies on germination conditions and antioxidant contents of wheat grain. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 52, 319- 330. https://doi.org/ 10.1080 /09637480120057567.

Kumar, Ranhotra GS, Loewe RJ, Lehman TA. 1977. Breadmaking quality and nutritive value of sprouted wheat. J Food Sci Nutr.  42, 1373. Y, Basu, S, Go Deosthale HN, Barai SC. 1949. Study of the mechanism of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid during germination. Indian J. Med. Res 37, 101-111.swami, D.