Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Pakistan food safety challenges

Review Paper | August 1, 2020

VIEWS 1,068
| Download 206

Mubasher Rauf, Abdul Waheed Khan, Muhammad Salman Farid, Sehar Anwar, Sadia Younis, Amna Bibi, Sana Sattar, Waseem Riaz

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.17( 2), 17-28, August 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/17.2.17-28


IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Developing societies are facing a horrible situation regarding health and economic issues due to the contamination of foods biologically, chemically, and physically. The rampantly available research on foodborne diseases, especially diarrhea, cholera and nausea among children and adults particularly explains the disease burden associated with the foodborne diseases in the economies of underdeveloped countries. Pakistan is an underdeveloped country in which food safety and hygienic conditions have been ignored for a long time and hence, the occurrence of many pathogens in different foods is common. Estimating foodborne diseases in Pakistan is a tough job because any monitoring or infection control program is absent yet. Unhygienic processing practices and poor storage of milk, cereals, nuts and other foods are a major cause of fungus and bacterial contamination like aflatoxin and others. Foods are contaminated by heavy metals as manifested by numerous studies. Continuous increase in the population greatly affects the economy of the country that eventually degrades food materials offered for promotion to get higher profit ignoring the quality and safety regarding those products. Therefore, increasing the trend of adulteration in foods like milk poses a serious challenge for the government during the past few years. The review is a demanding topic to explain the scenario of present food safety issues in Pakistan. The review is furnished with information from local and related international researches. Therefore, it is suggested that the infrastructure of the food safety department should be redirected which ultimately helps in the hygienic supply of foods to the users.

VIEWS 1,068

Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Pakistan food safety challenges

Aragrande M, Canali M. 2020. Integrating epidemiological and economic models to identify the cost of foodborne disease Experimental Parasitology 107832.

Calvin L, Flores L, Foster W. 2020. Food safety in food security and food trade.

Fitzwater S, Shet A, Santosham M, Kosek M. 2019. Infectious diarrhea. Water and Sanitation‐ Related Diseases and the Changing Environment: Challenges, Interventions, and Preventive Measures. 63-93.

Garcia SN, Osburn BI, Jay-Russell MT. 2020. One health for food safety, food security, and sustainable food production. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 4(1).

Hu Z, Li J, Wang H, Ye Z, Wang X, Li Y, Liu D, Song Z. 2019. Soil contamination with heavy metals and its impact on food security in China. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection 7, 168.

Imtiaz S, Alam A, Salman B. 2020. The role of the poultry industry on kidney and genitourinary health in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 36, S67.

Kaferstein F, Abdussalam M. 1998. Food safety in the twenty-first century. Paper read at Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Berlin, Germany.

Kirk MD, Angulo FJ, Havelaar AH, Black RE. 2017. Diarrhoeal disease in children due to contaminated food. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 95, 233.

Mohsin M, VanBoeckel TP, Saleemi MK,Umair M, Naseem MN, He C, Khan, Laxminarayan R. 2019.Excessive use of medically important imicrobials in food animals in Pakistan: A five-year surveillance survey. Global Health Action 12, 1697541.

Odeyemi OA, Sani NA, Obadina AO, Saba CKS, Bamidele FA, Abughoush M, Asghar A, Dongmo FFD, Macer D, Aberoumand A. 2019. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among consumers in developing countries: An international survey. Food research international 116, 1386-1390.

Riley LW. 2020. Extraintestinal foodborne pathogens. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology.

Shapiro HY. 2019. Paper read at Proceedings of the FAO International Symposium on the Role of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Sustainable Food Systems and Nutrition.

Smith VH, Glauber JW. 2020. Trade, policy, and food security. Agricultural Economics 51, 159171.

Ahmad MI, Ma H. 2020. Climate change and livelihood vulnerability in mixed crop-livestock areas: The case of Province Punjab, Pakistan. Sustainability (Switzerland) 12(2), 12–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020586

Ahmad M, Mustafa G, Iqbal M. 2016. Impact of Farm Households’ Adaptations to Climate Change on Food Security: Evidence from Different Agro-ecologies of Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 55(4), 561–588. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44986004

Ahmed A, Randhawa MA, Yusuf MJ, Khalid N. 2011. Effect of processing on pesticide residues in food crops: a review 49(3), 379–390.

Ahmed J, Wong LP, Chua YP, Channa N, Mahar RB, Yasmin A, VanDerslice JA, Garn  JV. 2020. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality to Predict the Risk of Waterborne Diseases in Primary-School Children. 17(8), 2774.

Ahmed K, Hussain A, Qazalbash MA, Hussain W, Areas N. 2009. Microbiological Quality of Ice Cream Sold in Gilgit Town. 8(9), 1397–1400.

Akbar N, Nasir M, Naeem N, Ahmad M, Saeed F, Anjum FM, Iqbal S, Imran M, Tufail T, Shah F. 2020. Assessment of aflatoxin in milk and feed samples and impact of seasonal variations in the Punjab, Pakistan. Food Science & Nutrition.

Akhtar S. 2015. Food Safety Challenges—A Pakistan’s Perspective. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55(2), 219–226. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.650801

Akhtar S, Naz S, Sultan M, Mahmood S, Nasir M, Ahmed DA. 2010. Physico-chemical attributes and heavy metal content of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) cultivated in different regions of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 2691–2702.

Alam M, Hussain Z, Khan A, Khan MA, Rab A, Asif M, Shah MA, Muhammad A. 2020. The effects of organic amendments on heavy metals bioavailability in mine impacted soil and associated human health risk. Scientia Horticulturae, 262, 109067. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2019.109067

Alamgir A, Fatima N, Ali B. 2018. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences Public Health Quality of Raw Milk sold in District Korangi, Karachi, Pakistan. J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, 8(3), 236–245. https://doi.org/10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.00000

Alananbeh K, Hayajneh F. 2019. Pesticide Residue Awareness among Students and Employees in the University of Jordan, Jordan. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information 20(2), 159–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496505.2018.1429929

Arif AM, Javed I, Ayaz M, Abdullah M, Imran M, Rashid A, Shahbaz M, Gondal TA, Qaisarani TB, Iqbal Z. 2020. Chemical composition, adulteration, total microbial load, and heavy metal in raw milk samples collected from dairy farms and urban areas in Lahore District, Pakistan. Journal of Food Safety 40(1), e12729.

Asghar MA, Ahmed A, Iqbal J, Zahir E, Nauman H. 2016. Fungal flora and aflatoxin contamination in Pakistani wheat kernels (Triticum aestivum L.) and their attribution in seed germination. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 24(3), 635–643. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.02.001

Asghar MA, Ahmed A, Zahir E, Asghar MA, Iqbal J, Walker G. 2017. Incidence of aflatoxins contamination in dry fruits and edible nuts collected from Pakistan. Food Control 78, 169–175. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.02.058

Asghar MA, Zahir E, Rantilal S, Ahmed A, Iqbal J. 2016. Aflatoxins in composite spices collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 9(2), 113–119.

Barham G, Soomro AH, Nizamani Z. 2018. Frequent Supply of Adulterated Milk at Southern Zone of Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Dairy Research and Technology 1, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.24966/DRT-9315/100002

Bi C, Zhou Y, Chen Z, Jia J, Bao X. 2018. Heavy metals and lead isotopes in soils, road dust and leafy vegetables and health risks via vegetable consumption in the industrial areas of Shanghai, China. Science of the Total Environment 619–620, 1349–1357. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.177

Choudhary A, Gupta N, Hameed F, Choton S. 2020. An overview of food adulteration: Concept, sources, impact, challenges and detection. International Journal of Chemical Studies 8(1), 2564–2573. https://doi.org/10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i1am.8655

Damalas CA, Eleftherohorinos IG. 2011. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(5), 1402–1419. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8051402

Dhakal A, Sbar E. 2020. Aflatoxin Toxicity. In Stat Pearls [Internet]. Stat Pearls Publishing.

Fanzo J, Davis C, McLaren R, Choufani J. 2018. The effect of climate change across food systems: Implications for nutrition outcomes. Global Food Security 18(January), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2018.06.001

FAO. 2010. Climate change: implications for food safety. Fao, 1196(1), 1–354. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120709144746

Gallo M. 2019. Novel Foods: Insects – Safety Issues. In P. Ferranti, E. M. Berry, & J. R. Anderson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability (p 294–299). Elsevier. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.22134-3

Grewal A, Singla A, Kamboj P, Dua J. 2017. Pesticide Residues in Food Grains, Vegetables and Fruits: A Hazard to Human Health. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry and Toxicology 2, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.15436/2575-808X.17.1355

Griffiths MW, Schraft H. 2017. Chapter 20 – Bacillus cereus Food Poisoning (C. E. R. Dodd, T. Aldsworth, R. A. Stein, D. O. Cliver, & H. P. B. T.-F. D. (Third E. Riemann (eds.); p 395–405). Academic Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385007-2.00020-6

Hamid AS, Tesfamariam IG, Zhang Y, Zhang ZG. 2013. Aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries: Geographical distribution, mechanism of action and prevention. Oncology Letters 5(4), 1087–1092. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2013.1169

Iqbal S, Ullah Z, Asi M, Jinap S, Sultan M, Malik N. 2017. Heavy Metals in Selected Vegetables from Markets of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Journal of Food Protection 81. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-256

Ismail A, Akhtar S, Riaz M, Gong YY, Routledge MN, Naeem I. 2020. Prevalence and Exposure Assessment of Aflatoxins through Black Tea Consumption in the Multan City of Pakistan and the Impact of Tea Making Process on Aflatoxins. Frontiers in Microbiology 11, 446.

Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 7(2), 60–72. https://doi.org/10.2478/intox-2014-0009

Jamal R, Mubarak S, Sahulka SQ, Kori JA, Tajammul A, Ahmed J, Mahar RB, Olsen MS, Goel R, Weidhaas J. 2020. Informing water distribution line rehabilitation through quantitative microbial risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 140021. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140021

Kamboj S, Gupta N, Bandral JD, Gandotra G, Anjum N. %J I. 2020. Food safety and hygiene: A review 8(1), 358–368.

Khan MA, Asghar MA, Iqbal J, Ahmed A, Shamsuddin ZA. 2014. Aflatoxins contamination and prevention in red chillies (Capsicum annuum L.) in Pakistan. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 7(1), 1–6.

Khan S, Rehman S, Khan AZ, Khan MA, Shah MT. 2010. Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 73(7), 1820–1827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.08.016

Kljujev I, Raicevic V, Jovicic-Petrovic J, Vujovic B, Mirkovic M, Rothballer M. 2018. Listeria monocytogenes – Danger for health safety vegetable production. Microbial Pathogenesis 120, 23–31. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.04.034

Labbe RG, Juneja VK. 2017. Chapter 10 – Clostridium perfringens∗∗Mention of brand or firm name does not constitute an endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture over others of a similar nature not mentioned. In C. E. R. Dodd, T. Aldsworth, R. A. Stein, D. O. Cliver, & H. P. Riemann (Eds.), Foodborne Diseases (Third Edition). Academic Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385007-2.00010-3

Latif Y, Sherazi STH, Bhanger MI. 2011. Assessment of pesticide residues in commonly used vegetables in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74(8), 2299–2303. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.07.030

Lushchak VI, Matviishyn TM, Husak VV, Storey JM, Storey KB. 2018. Pesticide toxicity: a mechanistic approach. EXCLI Journal 17, 1101–1136. https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2018-1710

Lutfullah G, Hussain A. 2012. Studies on contamination level of aflatoxins in some cereals and beans of Pakistan. Food Control, 23(1), 32–36. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.06.004

Majeed S, Iqbal M, Asi MR, Iqbal SZ. 2013. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A contamination in rice, corn and corn products from Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Cereal Science 58(3), 446–450. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.09.007

Mebdoua S. 2018. Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables. In J.-M. Mérillon & K. G. Ramawat (Eds.), Bioactive Molecules in Food (p 1–39). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54528-8_76-1

Mendonca A, Thomas-Popo E, Gordon A. 2020. Chapter 5 – Microbiological considerations in food safety and quality systems implementation. In A. Gordon (Ed.), Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries (p 185–260). Academic Press. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814272-1.00005-X

Menhas R, Umer S, Shabbir G. 2016. Climate Change and its Impact on Food and Nutrition Security in Pakistan. Iranian Journal of Public Health 45(4), 549–550. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27252930

Narenderan ST, Meyyanathan SN, Babu B. 2020. Review of pesticide residue analysis in fruits and vegetables. Pre-treatment, extraction and detection techniques. Food Research International, 133, 109141. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109141

Nazhand A, Durazzo A, Lucarini M, Souto EB, Santini A. 2020. Characteristics, Occurrence, Detection and Detoxification of Aflatoxins in Foods and Feeds. Foods 9(5), 644.

Nisar M, Ahmad M. ud D, Mushtaq MH, Shehzad W, Hussain A, Nasar M, Nagaraja KV, Goyal SM. 2018. Occurrence of Campylobacter in retail meat in Lahore, Pakistan. Acta Tropica 185, 42–45. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.030

Pan Z. 2020. Detection Technology of Aflatoxin Content Based on Smart Phone. E&ES, 440(2), 22049.

Rood JI, Adams V, Lacey J, Lyras D, McClane B A, Melville SB, Moore RJ, Popoff MR, Sarker MR, Songer JG. 2018. Expansion of the Clostridium perfringens toxin-based typing scheme. Anaerobe 53, 5–10.

Sarwar A, Din J, Fatima H, Chaudhry F, Zahoor A. 2018. Bacteriological Examination of Locally Prepared Ice cream in Lahore, Pakistan 4(1), 54–58.

Series C. 2019. Microbiological evaluation of locally produced ice cream in Baquba city. Microbiological evaluation of locally produced ice cream in. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1294/6/06205

Syed JH, Alamdar A, Mohammad A, Ahad K, Shabir Z, Ahmed H, Ali SM, Sani SG, Bokhari H, Gallagher KD, Ahmad I, Eqani SA. 2014. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Pakistan: a review of the occurrence and associated human health risks. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 21(23), 13367–13393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3117-z

Tahir S, Anwar T, Ahmad I, Aziz S, Mohammad A, Ahad K. 2001. Determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in Islamabad market. Journal of Environmental Biology / Academy of Environmental Biology, India, 22, 71–74.

Tariq M, Afzal S, Hussain I. 2004. Pesticides in shallow groundwater of Bahawalnagar, Muzafargarh, D.G. Khan and Rajan Pur districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Environment International 30, 471–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2003.09.008

Udomkun P, Njukwe E. 2020. Nanotechnological methods for aflatoxin control. In Nanomycotoxicology (p 385–396). Elsevier.

Ur Rehman Z, Khan S, Tahir Shah M, Brusseau ML, Akbar Khan S, Mainhagu J. 2018. Transfer of Heavy Metals from Soils to Vegetables and Associated Human Health Risks at Selected Sites in Pakistan. Pedosphere 28(4), 666–679. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60440-5

Wajih ul Hassan S, Sadef Y, Hussain S, Rafique Asi M, Ashraf MY, Anwar S, Malik A. 2020. Unusual pattern of aflatoxins and ochratoxin in commercially grown maize varieties of Pakistan. Toxicon, 182, 66–71. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.05.008

Zia MS, Khan MJ, Qasim M, Rehman A. %JJ. CSP. 2009. Pesticide residue in the food chain and human body inside Pakistan 31(2), 284–291.