Int. J. Biosci.19(2), 217-229, August 2021
Soil pedological information is vital for land use planning and sustainable fertility management. The study was carried out with the objective of characterizing and classifying the soils of Ikpe-Ikotnkon, Ini L.G.A. of Akwa Ibom State. Representative soil pedons were delineated along topographic positions using a detailed (1:25,000) soil survey and described based on their genetic horizon in the field for their morphological characteristics and analyzed in the laboratory for selected physical and chemical soil properties. The soils were classified According to Soil Survey Staff (2014). The morphological properties depicted that the soils were characterize by a low chroma of <10 and a hue value < 4 with significant mottles in the pedogenetic horizons, the particle size distribution showed that clay fraction was dominant in the surface and subsurface horizons and range from 43-64% across the pedon; the bulk density values ranged from 1.69-1.90gcm-3. The general chemical characteristics the soils were extremely to slightly acidic ranging from 4.01-4.79; the organic matter content values were low and ranged from 0.18-0.68%; while total nitrogen were low and mean values ranged from 0.10-0.23%; the available phosphorus values were low to moderate and ranged from 6.12-14.32mgkg-1; the exchangeable bases were low to moderate and ranged from 69.43-84.60cmolkg-1; exchangeable sodium percentage was high across the pedon and values ranged from 0.11–0.24cmolkg-1 depicting salinity nature of the soils, base saturation across the pedon were generally moderate to high and ranged from 67.53–82.00cmolkg-1. The soils in Ikpe-Ikotnkon, were generally classified as Typic Argiaqualf in the subgroup level and were correlated in FAO/UNESCO soil legend as Gleysols. The soils productive potentials showed that the maximum economic yield of rice in Ikpe-Ikotnkon were 5.34t/ha. Based on the result obtained from the study optimum rates of organic and inorganic amendments should be applied in the soil to reduce the level of acidity, and improve the fertility level of the soils for better crop performance.
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