Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity evaluation of ethanolic extract of pitcher plant pitchers (Nepenthes bellii)

Paper Details

Research Paper 06/02/2023
Views (729) Download (104)

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity evaluation of ethanolic extract of pitcher plant pitchers (Nepenthes bellii)

John Manuel C. Buniel
Int. J. Biosci.22( 2), 66-72, February 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Plants provide a wealth of medicinal benefits even for severe illnesses. Medicinal herbs are commonly used to treat and prevent a variety of illnesses. They often contain phytochemicals that contribute to developing novel medications to combat the threat of resistant strains. The current study investigated a medicinal plant commonly used in the northern part of Mindanao. The pitcher plant (Nephentes bellii) is a carnivorous plant that is endemic to the area. Nephentes bellii, ethanolic pitchers extract was evaluated for its medicinal property through phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity utilizing 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results revealed that Nephentes bellii pitchers contain bioactive compounds that are essential components in a medical plant, such as; Alkaloids, Anthraquinones, Flavonoids, Saponins, Steroids, and Tannins. Moreover, the Nephentes bellii ethanolic pitcher extracts possess a potent free radical scavenging activity.


Aktar K, Foyzun T. 2017. Phytochemistry and pharmacological studies of Citrus macroptera: A medicinal plant review. Evid Based Complement Alternat 9789802. DOI: 10.1155/2017/9789802,

Buniel JM. 2023. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluations of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in the Northern Part of Surigao del Sur, Philippines.

Cakilcioglu U, Turkoglu I. 2010. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Service, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 132(1), pp. 165-175.

Contreras-Guzman ES, Strong FC. 1982. Determination of tocopher-ols (vitamin E) by reduction of cupric ion. JAOAC 65, 1215-22.

Cunha BA. 2001. Antibiotics side effects. Med. Clin. North Am 85, 149 185.

Dewick P. 2011. Medicinal natural products: a biosynthetic approach. Third edition, Pub: J. Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 1119964571, 9781119964575.550 pp.

Evans CE, Banso A, Samuel OA. 2002. J Ethno pharmacology 80, pp. 21-24.

Firenzuoli F, Gori L. 2007. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 4(1), 37-40.

Funatogawa K, Hayashi S, Shimomura H, Yoshida T, Hatano T, Ito H. 2004. Antibacterial activity of hydrolysable tannins derived from medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori. Microbiol Immunol. 48(4), 251-61.

Hosseinzadeh S, Jafarikukhdan A, Hosseini A, Armand R. 2015. The application of medicinal plants in traditional and modern Medicine: A review of Thymus vulgaris. Int. J. Clin. Med. 6(9).

Huang D, Ou B, Prior R. 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53, 1841-1856.

Kedare SB, Singh RP, Singh R. 2011. Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay. J Food Sci Technol 48(4), 412-22.

Kolodziej H, Kiderlen AF. 2005. Antileishmanial activity and immune modulatory effects of tannins and related compounds on Leishmania parasitised RAW 264.7 cells. Phytochemistry.

Kondo K. 1969. A New Species of Nepenthes from the Philippines Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol 96, pp. 653-655.

Lin L, Shuwen L, Shibo J, Shuguang W. 2001. Tannin inhibits HIV‐1 entry by targeting gp 41. Acta Pharmacol Sin 25(2), 213‐218. 21.

McPherson SR. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.

Nair R, Kalariya,T. Chanda S. 2015, Antibacterial activity of some selected Indian medicinal flora, Turk. J. Biol 41-47.

Olowa LF, Nuñeza OM. 2013. Brine shrimp lethality Assay of the ethanolic extracts of three selected species of medicinal plants from Iligan City, Philippines. Int Res J Biol Sci 2(11), 74-7.

Oloya B, Namukobe J, Ssengooba W, Afayoa M, Byamukama R. 2022. Phytochemical screening, antimycobacterial activity and acute toxicity of crude extracts of selected medicinal plant species used locally in the treatment of tuberculosis in Uganda. Trop Med Health 50(1), 16. DOI: 10.1186/s41182-022-00406-7, PMID 35177126.

Panche A, Diwan A, Chandra, S. 2016. Flavonoids: an overview. Journal of Nutritional Science 5. DOI: 10.1017/jns.2016.41.

Parveen N, Nayak S, Kar D M, Das P. 2010. Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extracts of the plant Alternanthera sessilis against temperature regulation. Journal of Pharmacology Research 3(6), 1381-1383.

Pereira AV, Santana GM, Góis MB, Gonçales Sant’Ana DM. 2015. Tannins obtained from medicinal plants extracts against Pathogens: Antimicrobial Potential P. 228-35.

Rice-Evans C, Miller N, Paganga G. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in Plant Science 2(4), 152-159.

Rogers T. 2018. Facts about Pitcher Pants. Retrieved from html on 03.10.’18.

Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. 2012. Antioxidant activity,total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complement Altern Med 12, 221.

Sartori C. 2012. Avaliação dos teores de compostos fenólicos nas cascas de Anadenanthera peregrina (angico-vermelho) 94p.

Schorkhuber M, Richter M, Dutter A, Sontag G, Marian B. 1998. Effect of anthraquinone-laxatives on the proliferation and urokinase secretion of normal, premalignant and malignant colonic epithelial cells. Eur J. Cancer 34, 1091-1098.

Shukla S, Mehta A, Mehta P, Vyas SP, Shukla S, Bajpai VK. 2010. Studies on anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Caesalpinia bonducella F. seed oil in experimental animal models. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48(1), 61-64.

Veeru P, Kishor M, Meenakshi M, 2009. Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 3(8), pp. 608-612.

Wadood A, Ghufran, M, Jamal S, Naeem M, Khan A. 2013. Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Occurring in Local Area of Mardan. Biochem Anal Biochem 2, 144.

Wojcikowski K, Johnson D, Gobe G. 2004. Medicinal herbal extracts- Renal friend or foe? Part one: The toxicities of medicinal herbs. Nephrology (Carlton) 9, 313-318.

Xie Y, Yang W, Tang F, Chen X, Ren L. 2015. Antibacterial activities of flavonoids: structure- activity relationship and mechanism https://www.

Yala D, Merad AS, Mohamedi D, OuarKorich MN. 2001. Classification et mode d’action des antibiotiques. Médecine du Maghreb 91, 5-12.

Yamane H, Konno K, Sabelis M, Takabayashi J, Sassa T, Oikawa H. 2010. Comprehensive Natural Products II, L. Mander and H. W. Lui, Eds 385, p. 339, Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

Zhang X, Thuong P, Jin W, Su N, Sok D, Bae K, Kang S. 2005. Antioxidant activity of anthraquinones and flavonoids from flower of Reynoutria sachalinensis. Arch Pharm Res 28, 22-27.