Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-biofilm and antifungal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia in Benin

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Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-biofilm and antifungal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia in Benin

Oladélé Gautier Roko, Victorien Dougnon, Armelle Hounkpatin, Jean Robert Klotoe, Haziz Sina, Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon, Kamirou Chabi-Sika, Lamine Baba-Moussa
Int. J. Biosci.17( 6), 293-304, December 2020.
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Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia are plants of the traditional Beninese medicine. They are used in the treatment of several diseases, such as diarrheal infections, salmonellosis, malaria and others. This study aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge of these plants through their phytochemical screening as well as the in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant, antibiofilm and antifungal activity of their aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The phytochemical screening of these plants was evaluated by the standard method. The antioxidant activity was determined through the DPPH radical and the FRAP method. Anti-biofilm and antifungal activities were performed using the colorimetric method and the mycelial growth inhibition method respectively. Phytochemical screening of these plants revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as: tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, quinonic derivatives etc. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of these plants have antioxidant properties with IC50s ranging from 23.7 to 55.36 µg/ml (DPPH) and 0.43 to 1.96 mg/ml (FRAP). The anti-biofilm and antifungal effects of these extracts vary according to strains, extracts and plants. The inhibition percentages of bacterial biofilm are between 20.66 and 81%. The highest percentage of mycelial growth inhibition is 69.23±1.86% obtained with the ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta on Fusarium solani. The antioxidant, anti-biofilm and antifungal activities are much more remarkable with ethanolic extracts. These different results may justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine. Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia are therefore of medicinal interest as a potential source of natural bioactive substances.


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