Plants That No Body Wanted: An Assessment of the Conservation Status of Plant in Mohmand Agency FATA, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/05/2016
Views (290) Download (7)

Plants That No Body Wanted: An Assessment of the Conservation Status of Plant in Mohmand Agency FATA, Pakistan

Shah Khalid, Syed Zahir Shah
J. Bio. Env. Sci.8( 5), 195-205, May 2016.
Certificate: JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]


The current study was an attempt to encompass the conservation status of plants of Mohmand Agency, (FATA) Pakistan. IUCN Criteria was followed for the assessment of the conservation status of the plants in the area. Total 170 plants, belonging to 48 families were reported from the area out of which 13 (7.6%) plants were found to be endangered. These plants include Albizia lebbek Tamarix indica, Tecomella undulata, Acacia modesta, Acacia nilotica, Pinus roxburgii, Ziziphus mauritiana, Caralluma tuberculata, Cotoneaster nummularia, Dodonaea viscosa, Nannorhops ritchiana, Olea ferruginea and Salvadora persica. Biotic stress is extremely high due to anthropogenic disturbances and overgrazing, making 32 (18%) plants vulnerable, 87 (51%) rare and 38 (22%) plants infrequent. Fabaceae family was the most affected one, with 3 species being endangered, followed by Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Oleaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Salvadoraceae, Sapindaceae and Tamaricaceae with 1 species each. In vulnerable status, Poaceae was the highest threatened family with 7 species, followed by Brassicaceae with 4, fabaceae with 3 and Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae with 1 species each. There were 13 rare plants each in family Asteraceae and Poaceae. Highest number of infrequent plants belong to Asteraceae family (7), followed by Lamiaceae and Brassicaceae with 5 species each. Current status of the plants was attributed to the biological disturbance, habitat loss, habitat modification and political instability of the region, which has decreased the wild flora over the last few decades decreased over the last few decades due to intense biotic stress.


Ahmad I, Ahmad MSA, Hussain M, Ashraf M, Ashraf MY, Hameed M. 2010. Spatiotemporal aspects of plant community structure in open scrub rangelands of sub mountainous Himalayan plateaus. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(5), 3431-3440.

Ahmad SA. 2007. Medicinal  wild  plants  from Lahore-Islamabad Motorway (M-2). Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(2), 355-375.

Ahmad AS. 1980. Pukhtun Economy and Society: Traditional structure and economic development in a tribal society. Routledge and Kegan Paul Publishers, London.

Akeroyd J. 2002. A rational look at extinction. Plant Talk 28, 35-37.

Alam J, Ali SI. 2010. Contribution to the Red List of the Plants of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(5), 2967-2971.

Ali H, Qaiser M. 2010. Contribution to the Red List of Pakistan. A case study of Astragalus gahiratensis (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae). Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(3), 1523-1528.

Ali H, Qaiser M. 2010. Contribution to the Red List of Pakistan: A case study of Astragalus gahiratensis Ali (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae). Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 1523‒1528.

Bocuk H, Ture C, Ketenoglu O. 2009. Plant diversity and conservation of the northeast Phrygia region under the impact of land degradation and desertification (Central Anatolia, Turkey). Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(5), 2305-2321.

Butt A, Mateen F, Javed I, Jabeen A. 2015. A Comparative Analysis of National and International Plant Conservation Techniques: A Review. Journal of Science and Engineering Research, 2(3), 3044-50.

Chaudhry M, Qureshi R. 1991. Pakistan Endangered Flora II: A Checklist of rare and seriously threatened taxa of Pakistan. Pakistan Systematics 5(1), 84.

Davis G, Richardson D. 1995. Mediterranean Type Ecosystems: The Function of Biodiversity. Springer, Berlin, Germany, p.366.

Dyke, FV. 2003. Conservation Biology. McGraw Hill, New York.

Ehrlich PR, Ehrlich A. 1981. Extinction the cause and consequences of the disappearance of species. Random House, N.Y.

Ellison AM, Bank MS, Clinton BD, Colburn EA, Elliott K, Ford CR, Foster DR, Kloeppel BD, Knoepp JD, Lovett GM, Mohan J, Orwig DA, Rodenhouse NL, Sobczak WV, Stinson KA, Stone JK, Swan CM, Thompson J, von Holle B, Webster JR. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9, 479-48.

Ellison AM, Poltkin AAB, Foster D, Orwig DA. 2010. Experimentally testing the role of foundation species in forests: the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment. Methods in Ecology & Evolution 1, 168–179.

Ghazanfar SA. 2010. Restoring Saline Habitats: Identification and name changes in halophytes of the Arabian Peninsula. In: Urbanisation, Land Use, Land Degradation and Environment. (Eds.): MunirOzturk, AhmetRuhiMermut, Ali Celik.New Delhi; NAM S&T Centre.

Hamayun M, Khan SA, Sohn EY, Lee I. 2006. Folk medicinal knowledge and conservation status of some economically valued medicinal plants of District Swat, Pakistan. Lyonia 11(2), 101-113.

Hamilton A, Hamilton P. 2006. Plant Conservation. An Ecosystem Approach. Bath Press, UK.

Hilton-Taylor C. 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2004. IUCN website species information service,

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened species, cited on May 31, 2013.

Jamal Z. 2009. Biodiversity, Ethnobotany and Conservation Status of the Flora of Kaghan Valley Mansehra, NWFP. Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Botany, QAU Islamabad, Pakistan.

Jan G, Jan FG, Humayun M, Khan K, Khan A. Diversity and conservation status of vascular plants of Dir Kohistan valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 5(1), 164-172.

Khan M A, Khan MA, Hussain M, Mujtaba G. 2014. Plant diversity and conservation status of Himalayan Region Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 27(5), 1215-1239.

Khan M, Hussain F, Musharaf S. 2013a. Biodiversity of plant species in Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati, Pakistan. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 5(1), 39-46.

Khan M, Hussain F, Musharaf S. 2013b. Floristic Composition and Biological Characteristics of the Vegetation of Sheikh Maltoon Town, District Mardan, Pakistan. Annual Review & Research in Biology 3(1), 31-41.

Krishmamurthy KV. 2003. A Textbook of biodiversity Science Publishers Inc. Enfield, NH, USA.

Long C, Shengii P. 2003. Cultural diversity promotes conservation and application of biological diversity, Acta Botanical Yunnanica 14 (Supp.) , 11 – 22.

Mishra BP, Tripathi RS, Tripathi OP, Pandey HN. 2003. Effect of disturbance on fur dominant and economically important woody species in a broadleaved subtropical humid forest of Meghalaya, northeast India. Current Science 84, 1449-1453.

Morgan, WT. 1981. Ethnobotany of the Turkana: Use of Plants by a Pastoral People and their Livestock in Kenya. Journal of Economic Botany 35 (96), 130.

Mussarat S, Abdel-Salam NM, Tariq A, Wazir SM, Ullah R, Adnan M. 2014. Use of Ethno medicinal Plants by the People Living around Indus River. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 1-14.

Nasir YJ. 1991. Threatened Plants of Pakistan. In: Ali SI, Ghaffa A. (eds.) Plant Life of South Asia: Proceedings of the International Symposium Karachi, 229, 234

Ramakrishnan PS, Saxena KG, Chandrashekara UN. 1998. Conserving the Sacred for Biodiversity Management. Oxford and IBH Publication Co. Pvt. Ltd., Newdelhi, India.

Razzaq A, Hadi F, Rashi A, Ibrar M, Ali U. 2015. Exploration of Medicinal Plants and Their Conservation Status at Higher Altitude of District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science 15 (3), 328-331.

Shah M, Baig KJ. 1999. Threatened Species Listing in PAKISTAN: Status, Issues and Prospects in using IUCN Red List Criteria at National Level: A Regional Consultative Workshop for South and Southeast Asia, IUCN Reg. Biodivers. Program, Asia, 70-81.

Shinwari ZK, Gilani SS, Shoukat M. 2002. Ethnobotanical resources and implications for curriculum. In: Shinwari ZK, Hamilton A, Khan AA. (eds.), Proceedings of Workshop on Curriculum Development in Applied Ethnobotany, 21, 34. May, 2-4, Nathiagali, Abbotabad, WWF Pakistan.

The ISE Code of Ethics. 2006. International Society of Ethnobiology [WWW Document], n.d. URL ms/iseethicsprogram/codeofethics/accessed04.01.16.

Thomas CD, Gameron A, Green RE, Bakkenes M, Beaumont LJ, Collingham YC, Erasmus BFN, Siqueira MF, Grainger A, Hannah L, Hughes L, Huntley B, Jaarsveld AS, Midgley GF, Miles L, Ortega- Huerta MA, Peterson AT, Phillips OL, William SE. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427, 145-148.

Walter KS, Gillet HJ. 1998. IUCN Red list of Threatened Plants. World Conservation Monitoring Center.-IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Wilson EO. 1998. Biodiversity, National academy Press, Washington Dc, USA.