Potential of cooking bananas in addressing food security in East Africa

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/10/2018
Views (383) Download (8)

Potential of cooking bananas in addressing food security in East Africa

Joachim Dotto, Athanasia O. Matemu, Patrick A. Ndakidemi
Int. J. Biosci.13( 4), 278-294, October 2018.
Certificate: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and serves as an ideal and low-cost staple food in East Africa whose residents rely mostly on bananas as a source of food. Banana is practically non-seasonal crop that reliably grown by local farmers primarily for food. It has been categorised as the dessert bananas and the cooking bananas. Cooking banana is one of the most important staple food and cash crops in East Africa. It plays a central role in food security; it serves as a source of carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins all year-round. The banana crop provides a household annual income of about $ 1,500; this is the highest smallholder income-generating crop in the region. Currently, several indigenous and improved cultivars exist in East Africa. However, only a few popular cultivars are produced for commercial purposes. It is, therefore, important know the nutritional value, physicochemical quality parameters and sensory attributes of different cultivars from the literature review and seek to know how such information can help researchers in improving the challenging cultivars. There are wide-ranging variations reported in different banana cultivars for nutrients, minerals and other quality properties. In the present review, an overview of popular banana cultivars; nutritional value and health benefits; sensory and physicochemical properties and the role of breeding in improving quality of cooking bananas are thoroughly discussed.


Adeniji T, Tenkouano A, Ezurike J, Ariyo C, Vroh-Bi I. 2010. Value-adding post harvest processing of cooking bananas Musa spp. AAB and ABB genome groups). African Journal of Biotechnology 9, 9135-9141.

Affognon H, Mutungi C, Sanginga P, Borgemeister C. 2015. Unpacking postharvest losses in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis. World Development 66, 49-68.

Alkarkhi AF, bin-Ramli S, Yong YS, Easa AM. 2011. Comparing physicochemical properties of banana pulp and peel flours prepared from green and ripe fruits. Food Chemistry 129, 312-318.

American-Diabetes-Association. 2012. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2012. Diabetes Care 35, S11.

Anderson JW, Kendall C, Jenkins DJ. 2003. Importance of weight management in type 2 diabetes: a review with meta-analysis of clinical studies. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22, 331-339.

Anuonye J, Ndaliman M, Elizabeh O, Yakubu M. 2012. Effect of Blending on the Composition and Acceptability of Blends of Unripe Banana and Pigeon Pea Flours. Nigerian Food Journal 30, 116-123.

Arvanitoyannis I, Mavromatis A. 2009. Banana cultivars, cultivation practices, and physicochemical properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 49, 113-135.

Aurore G, Parfait B, Fahrasmane L. 2009. Bananas, raw materials for making processed food products. Trends in Food Science and Technology 20, 78-91.

Baiyeri K, Aba S, Otitoju G, Mbah O. 2011. The effects of ripening and cooking method on mineral and proximate composition of plantain (Musa sp. AAB cv.‘Agbagba’) fruit pulp. African Journal of Biotechnology 10, 6979-6984.

BananaLink. 2015. All about banana in West Africa. Retrieved on May 17, 2018. www.bana.com

Bartoshuk LM, Klee HJ. 2013. Better fruits and vegetables through sensory analysis. Current Biology 23, R374-R378.

Belayneh M, Workneh T, Belew D. 2014. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of some cooking banana (Musa spp.) for boiling and frying process. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51, 3635-3646.

Bravo L. 1998. Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutrition Reviews 56, 317-333.

Brouns F, Kettlitz B, Arrigoni E. 2002. Resistant starch and “the butyrate revolution”. Trends in Food Science and Technology 13, 251-261.

Bugaud C, Alter P, Daribo MO, Brillouet JM. 2009. Comparison of the physico‐chemical characteristics of a new triploid banana hybrid, FLHORBAN 920, and the Cavendish variety. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 89, 407-413.

Bujor OC, Giniès C, Popa VI, Dufour C. 2018. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) leaf, stem and fruit at different harvest periods. Food Chemistry.

Caballero B, Trugo L, Finglas P. 2003. Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition: Volumes 1-10: Elsevier Science BV. 5130-5136.

Caballero B. 2012. Encyclopedia of human nutrition: Academic press 3895-3899.

Callaghan DT, Weisbord CD, Dew WA, Pyle GG. 2012. The role of various sensory inputs in establishing social hierarchies in crayfish. Behaviour 149, 1443-1458.

Carocho M, Ferreira I. 2013. The role of phenolic compounds in the fight against cancer–a review. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Cancer Agents) 13, 1236-1258.

Carter B, Reeder R, Mgenzi S, Kinyua Z, Mbaka J, Doyle K, Nakato V, Mwangi M, Beed F, Aritua V. 2010. Identification of Xanthomonas vasicola (formerly X. campestris pv. musacearum), causative organism of banana Xanthomonas wilt, in Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi. Plant Pathology 59, 403-405.

Chandler S. 1995. The nutritional value of bananas, in a Bananas and plantains: Springer 468-480.

Christinck A, Weltzien E. 2013. Plant breeding for nutrition-sensitive agriculture: an appraisal of developments in plant breeding. Food Security 5, 693-707.

Costell E, Tárrega A, Bayarri S. 2010. Food acceptance: the role of consumer perception and attitudes. Chemosensory Perception 3, 42-50.

Dadzie BK, Orchard JE. 1996. Post-harvest Criteria and Methods for Routine Screening of Banana-plantain Hybrids: Montpellier, France: International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP).

Davies G. 1995. Banana and plantain in the East African highlands, in a Bananas and Plantains: Springer 93-508.

De Langhe E, Karamura D, Mbwana A. 2001. Tanzania Musa Expedition 2001: International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP).

De Langhe E. 1986a. Preliminary study of the needs for banana research in Eastern Africa: International Information System for the Agricultural Science and Technology

De Langhe E. 1986b. Towards an international strategy for genetic improvement in the genus Musa, in a Banana and plantain breeding strategies 19-21.

Deshmukh MH, Pai SR, Nimbalkar MS, Patil RP. 2009. Biochemical characterization of banana cultivars from Southern India. International Journal of Fruit Science 9, 305-322.

Diop N, Jaffee S. 2005. Fruits and vegetables: global trade and competition in fresh and processed product markets. Global agricultural trade and developing countries 237-257.

Drewnowski A, Gomez-Carneros C. 2000. Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer: a review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72, 1424-1435.

Drogoudi PD, Michailidis Z, Pantelidis G. 2008. Peel and flesh antioxidant content and harvest quality characteristics of seven apple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 115, 149-153.

Drzikova B, Dongowski G, Gebhardt E, Habel A. 2005. The composition of dietary fibre-rich extrudates from oat affects bile acid binding and fermentation in vitro. Food chemistry 90, 181-192.

Dwyer JT, Drewnowski A. 2017. Overview: Food and Nutrition Security, in: Sustainable Nutrition in a Changing World: Springer 3-24.

Elmadfa I. 2005. Diet diversification and health promotion (Vol. 57): Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers.

Fan S, Pandya-Lorch R. 2012. Reshaping agriculture for nutrition and health: International Food Policy Research Institute.

FAOSTAT. 2014. Agricultural data: Provisional 2014 Production and Production Indices Data. Crop primary.

Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson JL, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD. 2002. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care 25, 148-198.

Fungo R, Pillay M. 2011. β-Carotene content of selected banana genotypes from Uganda. African Journal of Biotechnology 10, 5423-5430.

Gordon LJ, Bignet V, Crona B, Henriksson PJ, Van Holt T, Jonell M, Lindahl T, Troell M, Barthel S, Deutsch L. 2017. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship. Environmental Research Letters 12, 100-110.

Grashorn MA. 2005. Enrichment of eggs and poultry meat with biologically active substances by feed modifications and effects on the final quality of the product. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 14, 15.

Green-Petersen DM. 2010. Sensory Quality of Seafood: in the chain from catch to consumption: Division of Seafood Research, Technical University of Denmark.

Hardisson A, Rubio C, Baez A, Martin M, Alvarez R, Diaz E. 2001. Mineral composition of the banana (Musa acuminata) from the island of Tenerife. Food Chemistry 73, 153-161.

Hasani M, Zamani Z, Savaghebi G, Fatahi R. 2012. Effects of zinc and manganese as foliar spray on pomegranate yield, fruit quality and leaf minerals. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12, 471-480.

Haslinda W, Cheng L, Chong L, Aziah AN. 2009. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 60, 232-239.

Hijova E, Chmelarova A. 2007. Short chain fatty acids and colonic health. Bratislavské Lekárske Listy 108, 354.

Hippolyte I, Jenny C, Gardes L, Bakry F, Rivallan R, Pomies V, Cubry P, Tomekpe K, Risterucci AM, Roux N. 2012. Foundation characteristics of edible Musa triploids revealed from allelic distribution of SSR markers. Annals of botany 109, 937-951.

Hoffmann SFA, de Lima FNR, Lopes NTT, Santos AO, Tobaruela EC, Kato ETM, Menezes EW. 2016. Identification of carbohydrate parameters in commercial unripe banana flour. Food Research International 81, 203-209.

Jacobsen K. 2014. An emergency banana disease in East Africa. Case Studies of Roots, Tubers and Bananas Seed Systems 197.

Jayasena V, Cameron I. 2008. °Brix/acid ratio as a predictor of consumer acceptability of Crimson Seedless table grapes. Journal of Food Quality 31, 736-750.

Jenkins DJ, Vuksan V, Kendall CW, Wursch P, Jeffcoat R, Waring S, Mehling CC, Vidgen E, Augustin LS, Wong E. 1998. Physiological effects of resistant starches on fecal bulk, short chain fatty acids, blood lipids and glycemic index. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17, 609-616.

Kachru R, Kotwaliwale N, Balasubramanian D. 1995. Physical and mechanical properties of green banana (Musa paradisiaca) fruit. Journal of Food Engineering 26, 369-378.

Karamura D, Karamura E, Gold C. 1996. Cultivar distribution in primary banana growing regions of Uganda. Kampala, Uganda: Bioversity International.

Karamura D, Karamura E, Tinzaara W. 2012. Banana cultivar names, synonyms and their usage in Eastern Africa. Kampala, Uganda: Bioversity International.

Karamura D, Njuguna J, Nyamongo D. 2006. The Kenya Musa Expedition. Montpellier, France: Biodiversity International

Karamura D. 1999. Numerical taxonomic studies of the East African highland bananas (Musa AAA-East Africa) in Uganda. Kampala, Uganda: International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain.

Karamura DA. 1999. Numerical taxonomic studies of the East African highland bananas (Musa AAA-East Africa) in Uganda. Montpellier, France: International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP).

Karamura FE, Karamura D, Sharrock S. 1998. Banana production systems in eastern and southern Africa. Bananas and food security. INIBAP, Montpellier 401-412.

Kazi S, Ismail S, Joshi K. 2012. Effect of multi-micronutrient on yield and quality attributes of the sweet orange. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 4118-4123.

Kilimo-Trust. 2012. Banana Value Chain(s) in the East Africa Countries: consumption, productivity and challenges. Kampala, Uganda: Kilimo Trust.

Kitavi M, Downing T, Lorenzen J, Karamura D, Onyango M, Nyine M, Ferguson M, Spillane C. 2016. The triploid East African Highland Banana (EAHB) genepool is genetically uniform arising from a single ancestral clone that underwent population expansion by vegetative propagation. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 129, 547-561.

Kumssa DB, Joy EJ, Young SD, Odee DW, Ander EL, Broadley MR. 2017. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition. PloS one 12.

Lawless HT, Heymann H. 2010. Physiological and psychological foundations of sensory function Sensory Evaluation of Food: Springer 19-56.

Lejju BJ, Robertshaw P, Taylor D. 2006. Africa’s earliest bananas? Journal of Archaeological Science 33, 102-113.

Lescot T. 2000. The importance of plantains and cooking bananas in Africa: outlets for the subtropical zones. International workshop on cooking banana in subtropical zones, Montpellier, France: International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP) 9, 25-28.

Meilgaard MC, Carr BT, Civille GV. 2006. Sensory evaluation techniques: CRC Press.

Mgenzi S, Mshaghuley I, Staver C, Nkuba J. 2008. Banana (Musa spp.) Processing Businesses: Support Environment and Role in Poverty Reduction in Rural Tanzania. Paper presented at the IV International Symposium on Banana: International Conference on Banana and Plantain in Africa: Harnessing International 879.

Mohapatra D, Mishra S, Sutar N. 2010. Banana and its by-product utilisation: an overview. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 69, 323-329.

Moreira A, Moraes LA, dos Reis AR. 2018. The Molecular Genetics of Zinc Uptake and Utilization Efficiency in Crop Plants Plant Micronutrient Use Efficiency: Elsevier 87-108.

Muñoz-González C, Feron G, Canon F. 2018. Main effects of human saliva on flavour perception and the potential contribution to food consumption. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1-9.

Ndayitegeye O, Blomme G, Ocimati W, Crichton R, Ntamwira J, Muchunguzi P, Van Asten P, Bahati L, Gaidashova S. 2017. Multi-locational evaluation of cooking banana cultivars NARITA 4 hybrid and Mpologoma in Rwanda. African Journal of Agricultural Research 12, 3068-3071.

Ndunguru AA. 2009. Economic analysis of improved banana cultivars production in Tanzania. a case study of Rungwe, Mvomero and Mkuranga districts. Masters dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro.

Nestle M, Wing R, Birch L, DiSogra L, Drewnowski A, Middleton S, SigmanGrant M, Sobal J, Winston M, Economos C. 1998. Behavioral and social influences on food choice. Nutrition Reviews 56, 50-64.

Neumann K, Hildebrand E. 2009. Early bananas in Africa: the state of the art. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7, 353-362.

Nguthi F, Onyango M, Muniu F, Muthamia J, Njuguna M. 1999. Annual report of biotechnology to benefit small-scale banana producers in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya.

Ohizua ER, Adeola AA, Idowu MA, Sobukola OP, Afolabi TA, Ishola RO, Ayansina SO, Oyekale TO, Falomo A. 2017. Nutrient composition, functional, and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweetpotato flour blends. Food Science and Nutrition 5, 750-762.

Onyango M, Karamura D, Keeley S, Manshardt R, Haymer D. 2009. Morphological characterisation of East African AAB and AA dessert bananas (Musa spp.). Paper presented at the V International Symposium on Banana: ISHS-ProMusa Symposium on Global Perspectives on Asian Challenges 897.

Opara UL, Jacobson D, Al-Saady NA. 2010. Analysis of genetic diversity in banana cultivars (Musa cvs.) from the South of Oman using AFLP markers and classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 11, 332-341.

Ouma E, Jagwe J. 2010. Banana value chains in Central Africa: constraints and opportunities. Paper presented at the Joint 3rd African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) and 48th Agricultural Economists Association of South Africa (AEASA) Conference. Cape Town. South Africa. September.

Pareek S. 2016. Nutritional and biochemical composition of banana (Musa spp.) cultivars. Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars: Elsevier 49-81.

Perrier X, De Langhe E, Donohue M, Lentfer C, Vrydaghs L, Bakry F, Carreel F, Hippolyte I, Horry JP, Jenny C. 2011. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 11311-11318.

Peters U, Sinha R, Chatterjee N, Subar AF, Ziegler, RG, Kulldorff M, Bresalier R, Weissfeld JL, Flood A, Schatzkin A. 2003. Dietary fibre and colorectal adenoma in a colorectal cancer early detection programme. The Lancet 361, 1491-1495.

Price NS. 2006. The banana burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne, in the Lake Victoria region of East Africa: its introduction, spread and impact. Nematology 8, 801-817.

Prusky D. 2011. Reduction of the incidence of postharvest quality losses, and future prospects. Food Security 3, 463-474.

Pu Y, Ding T, Wang W, Xiang Y, Ye X, Li M, Liu D. 2018. Effect of harvest, drying and storage on the bitterness, moisture, sugars, free amino acids and phenolic compounds of jujube fruit (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98, 628-634.

Reis RC, Viana ES, Jesus JLd, Santos TMdS, Oliveira NAd. 2016. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 46, 89-95.

Rowe P, Rosales F. 1993. Genetic improvement of bananas, plantains and cooking bananas in FHIA, Honduras. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Genetic Improvement of Bananas for Resistance to Diseases and Pests, Montpellier (France) 7-9.

Salih ZA, Siddeeg A, Taha RT, Bushra M, Ammar AF, Ali AO. 2017. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Pulp and Peel Flour of Dried Green and Ripe Banana (Cavendish). International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences 4, 2348-3997.

Savlak N, Türker B, Yeşilkanat N. 2016. Effects of particle size distribution on some physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour. Food Chemistry 213, 180-186.

Schmidt MM, Prestes RC, Kubota EH, Scapin G, Mazutti MA. 2015. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extracts of banana inflorescences (Musa cavendishii). CyTA-Journal of Food 13, 498-505.

Shepherd K. 1957. Banana cultivars in East Africa. Tropical Agriculture 34.

Sheth K. 2017. Top Banana Producing Countries In The World, Worldatlas. Retrieved on April 25, 2018 from www.worldatlas.com/articles/top-banana

Simmonds NW, Shepherd K. 1955. The taxonomy and origins of the cultivated bananas. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 55, 302-312.

Slavin J. 2013. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients 5(4), 1417-1435.

Smale M, Tushemereirwe W. 2007. An economic assessment of banana genetic improvement and innovation in the Lake Victoria region of Uganda and Tanzania (Vol. 155): International Food Policy Research Institute.

Ssonko UL, Muranga FI. 2017. Partial characterization of starches from major banana (matooke) cultivars grown in Uganda. Food Science and Nutrition 5, 1145-1153.

Statistica. 2016. Global fruit production in 2016, by variety. Retrieved on June 22, 2018 from www.statistista.com/statistics/264001/world

Staver C, Capra I. 2017. Banana diversity and the food and income threats of pest and pathogen losses: Priority research areas to deploy diversity to reduce pest and disease losses. Kampala, Uganda: Bioversity International.

SuárezEstrella D, Torri L, Pagani MA, MartiA. 2018. Quinoa bitterness: causes and solutions for improving product acceptability. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.

Suntharalingam S, Ravindran G. 1993. Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 43, 19-27.

Suntharalingam S. 1990. Nutritional and functional properties of green banana flour. (Masters thesis), University of Peradeniy, Sri Lanka.

Tapsell LC, Neale EP, Satija A, Hu FB. 2016. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines. Advances in Nutrition 7, 445-454. DOI: 10.3945/ an.115.011718

Terry P, Giovannucci E, Michels KB, Bergkvist L, Hansen H, Holmberg L, Wolk A. 2001. Fruit, vegetables, dietary fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93, 525-533.

Vabø M, Hansen H. 2014. The relationship between food preferences and food choice: a theoretical discussion. International Journal of Business and Social Science 5.

Vézina A. 2018. Cavendish subgroup. Retrieved June 03, 2018. www.promusa.org/ Cavendish+subgroup

Wang L, Sun DW, Pu H, Cheng JH. 2017. Quality analysis, classification, and authentication of liquid foods by near-infrared spectroscopy: A review of recent research developments. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57, 1524-1538.

Wang Y, Zhang M, Mujumdar AS. 2012. Influence of green banana flour substitution for cassava starch on the nutrition, color, texture and sensory quality in two types of snacks. LWT-Food science and technology 47, 175-182.