Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.13( 5), 89-95, November 2018
Nutritional quality of 17 varieties of Apples (Nuggets, Double red, Jona gold, Starking delicious, Red golden, Spartin, King red delicious, Sky spur, Golden delicious, Golden russet, Ida red, Red chief, Golden, Amri, Meshaddi, Kandhari, Gala must) were assessed. Samples were collected from fruit hill station Murree. The study continued for a period of three years (2014, 2015 and 2016). Results bared that fruit weight (g/fruit) varied from 94.4 to 190.2, Pulp (%) from 35.8 to 49.6, Juice (%) from 43.3 to 59.1, pH from 3.0 to7.5, acidity from 0.46 to 1.18, malic acid (%) from 0.13 to 0.55, TSS (%) from 9.7 to 13.1, Total sugars (%) from 6.7to 11.2 and Vitamin-C (mg/100g) from 2.8 to 5.6. Among 17 varieties, variety Ida red and Double red were found better due to their higher percentage of juice (59.1%) and pulp (52.8%) respectively and variety Kandhari for its sweetness i.e. higher sugars (11.2% ), higher pH (3.5) and lower malic acids contents (0.13%).
Abbas MM, Mohar TA, Shabbir K. 2012. Performance of different apple varieties under climatic conditions of Murree hills. Journal of Agriculture Research 50(3), 393-401.
Abid M. 2005. Effect of citric acid with lactic acid on the quality and sensory characteristics of apple drink. M.Sc. Thesis, Deptt Food Tech., Univ. Agri., Faisalabad.
Ackermann J, Fischer M, Amado R. 2009. Changes in sugars, acids, and amino acids during ripening and storage of apples (Cv. Glockenapfel). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 40, 131-134.
Allan BW, Cox KA, White A, Ferguson IB. 2003. Low temperature conditioning treatments reduce external chilling injury of ‘Hass’ avocados. Post-harvest Biology & Technology 28(1), 113-122.
Anonymous. 2015. Pakistan statistical year book. Government of Pakistan. Statistics Division, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Statistics House, 21-Mauve Area, G-9/1, Islamabad, Pakistan.
AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, USA.
Athanasopoulos L, Pappas L, Chritos. 2000. Effect of fruit acidity and storage conditions on the rate of degradation of azinphosmethyl on apples and lemons. Food Chemistry 69, 69-72.
Beaudry RM, Severson RF, Black CC, Kays SJ. 1989. Banana ripening: Implications of changes in glycolytic intermediate concentrations, glycolytic and gluconeogenic carbon flux, and fructose 2, 6-bisphsphate concentration. Journal of Plant Physiology 91, 1436-1444.
Crouch I. 2003. 1-Methylcyclopropene (smartfresh TM) as an alternative to modified atmosphere and controlled atmosphere storage of apples and pears. Acta Horticulture 600, 433-436.
Herforth AW. 2000. An apple a day can functional foods keep the doctor away. Nutral Review 58(1), 1-10.
Hussain T. 2001. Food composition table for Pakistan. Govt. of Pakistan, Ministry of P & D, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Jan A, Rab, Sajid M. 2012. Performance of apple cultivars harvested at different stages of maturity. Journal of Animal & Plant Science 22(2), 438-447
Javaid MA, Khan AR, Nawaz MA, Raza A, Khan MN. 2011. Performance of various apple cultivars at Murree hills of Pakistan. International Journal of Agricultural and Applied Sciences 3(2), 69-71.
Ketiku AO. 1973. Chemical composition of unripe (green) and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 24, 703.
Khan MA, Ahmad I. 2005. Morphological study on physical changes in apple fruit after storage at room temperature. Journal of Agriculture and Social Science 1(2), 102-104
Li BW, Andrews KW, Pehrsson PR. 2002. Individual sugars, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber contents of 70 high consumption foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 15, 715–723.
Magein H, Leurquin D. 2000. Changes in amylase, amylopectin and total starch content in ‘jona gold’ apple fruit during growth and maturation. Acta Horticulture 517, 487-491.
Marchand L, Murphy S, Hankin J, Wilkens L, Kolonel L. 2000. Intake of flavonoids and lung cancer. Journal of National Cancer Institute 92, 154-160.
Markowski J, Baron A, Mieszczakowska M, Ploharski W. 2009. Chemical composition of French and Polish cloudy apple juices. Horticulture Science & Biotechnology ISA FRUIT pp. 68–74.
Mikulic MP, Stampar F, Veberic R. 2009. Changes in the inner quality parameters of apple fruit from technological to edible maturity. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica 93(1), 17-29.
Milosevic T, Milosevic N. 2015. Apple fruit quality, yield and leaf macronutrients content as affected by fertilizer treatment. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 15(1), 76-83.
Mukhtar A, Gilani AH, Bhatty N. 2010. Some nutritional and microbiological aspects of apples of common varieties available for household consumption. Journal of Animal & Plant Science 20(4), 253-257.
Nasir M, Akhtar A, Ahmad S, Shah HRA. 2001. Some high chilling late cultivars of apples under trial in Murree Hills. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 4(2), 141-142.
Riekstina-Dolge R, Kruma Z, Karklina D Dimins F. 2014. Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering 8(3), 263-267.
Roth E, Berna A, Beullens K, Yarramraju S, Lammertyna J, Schenk A, Nicola B. 2007. Postharvest quality of integrated and organically produced apple fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 45, 11–19.
Wu J, Gao H, Zhao L, Liao X, Chen F, Wang Z, Hu X. 2006. Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars. Food Chemistry 103, 88-93.