Quinoa growth and yield performance in Tanzania: A prospect crop for food security

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2020
Views (483) Download (31)

Quinoa growth and yield performance in Tanzania: A prospect crop for food security

Flora Flossy Shonga, Moses Fanuel Anderson Maliro, Ernest Richard Mbega
Int. J. Biosci.16( 3), 614-624, March 2020.
Certificate: IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Quinoa is an emerging potential cereal crop that has recently been recommended for food security worldwide. This study was to evaluate growth and yield performance of quinoa genotypes under rain-fed conditions at the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) farm in Arusha and Kibosho (KB) in Kilimanjaro during the 2018/2019 growing season in Tanzania. The experiment had five genotypes (QQ74, Titicaca, Multihued, Biobio and Brightest Brilliant Rainbow) laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Parameters evaluated were days to 50% flowering and maturity, panicle length, grain yield/ha, above-ground biomass, seed size (g/1000 grain weight) and harvest index. Data was analyzed by Gen-stat statistical package. The results showed that growth and yield performance of the five quinoa genotypes at the NM-AIST and Kibosho differed. Interaction of genotype and site significantly (P<0.001) influenced days to 50% flowering and plant height. The genotype × site interaction significantly (P < 0.05) affected panicle length, days to maturity, biomass and harvest index. Grain yield was higher at the NM-AIST (ranging from 3194 to 4306 kg/ha) than Kibosho (ranging from 2778 to 3917 kg/ha). The highest yielding genotype at both sites was BBR. The results strongly showed that quinoa can grow well in the Tanzanian environments, thus the crop can be introduced to Tanzania. Quinoa has a potential of addressing food and nutritional security due to its ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental condition and its high nutritional profile.


Adhikari U, Nejadhashemi AP, Woznicki SA. 2015. Climate change and eastern Africa: a review of impact on major crops. Food and Energy Security 4(2), 110-132.

Adolf VI, Jacobsen SE, Shabala S. 2013. Salt tolerance mechanisms in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Environ Exp Bot 92, 43-54.

Arndt C, Farmer W, Strzepek, K, Thurlow J. 2012. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania. Review of Development Economics 16(3), 378-393.

Bazile D, Pulvento C, Verniau A, Al-Nusairi MS, Ba D, Breidy J, Hassan L, Mohammed M. I, Mambetov O, Otambekova M. 2016. Worldwide evaluations of quinoa: preliminary results from post international year of quinoa FAO projects in nine countries. Frontiers in Plant Science 7(850), 1-18.

Belmonte C, de Vasconcelos ES, Tsutsumi CY, Lorenzetti E, Hendges C, Coppo JC, da Silva Martinez A, Pan R, Brito TS, Inagaki AM. 2018. Agronomic and Productivity Performance for Quinoa Genotypes in an Agroecological and Conventional Production System. American Journal of Plant Sciences 9(04), 880.

Bois JF, Winkel T, Lhomme JP, Raffaillac JP, Rocheteau A. 2006. Response of some Andean cultivars of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to temperature: Effects on germination, phenology, growth and freezing. European Journal of Agronomy 25(4), 299-308.

Brinda EM, Andrés RA, Enemark U. 2014. Correlates of out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures in Tanzania: results from a national household survey. BMC International Health and Human Rights 14(1), 5.

Choukr-Allah R, Rao NK, Hirich A, Shahid M, Alshankiti A, Toderich K, Gill S, Butt KUR. 2016. Quinoa for marginal environments: toward future food and nutritional security in MENA and Central Asia regions. Frontiers in Plant Science 7, 346.

Coulibaly A, Sangare A, Konate M, Traore S, Ruiz K, Martinez EA, Zurita A, Antognoni F, Biondi S, Maldonado S. 2015. Assessment and adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) to the agroclimatic conditions in Mali, West Africa: An example of South-North-South cooperation.

Dipietro E, Bashor M, Stroud P, Smarr B, Burgess B, Turner W, Neese J. 1988. Comparison of an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method for the determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper and zinc with atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame photometry methods. Science of the total environment 74, 249-262.

FAO. 2011. Quinoa: An ancient crop to contribute to world food security (pp. 1-63): PROINPA.

Fuentes F, Bhargava A. 2011. Morphological analysis of quinoa germplasm grown under lowland desert conditions. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 197(2), 124-134.

Fuentes F, Martinez E, Hinrichsen P, Jellen E, Maughan P. 2009. Assessment of genetic diversity patterns in Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) germplasm using multiplex fluorescent microsatellite markers. Conservation Genetics 10(2), 369-377. doi: DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-008-9604-3

Horwitz W. 2010. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Volume I, agricultural chemicals, contaminants, drugs/edited by William Horwitz: Gaithersburg (Maryland): AOAC International, 1997.

Izquierdo J, Mujica A, Marathée JP, Jacobsen SE. 2003a. Horizontal, Technical Cooperation in Research on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Food reviews international 19(1-2), 25-29.

Izquierdo J, Mujica A, Marathée JP, Jacobsen SE. 2003b. Horizontal, Technical Cooperation in Research on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Food reviews international 19(1-2), 25-29.

Jacobsen SE. 2003. The worldwide potential for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Food reviews international, QA(V abn), 167-177.

Jacobsen SE, Christiansen JL. 2016. Some Agronomic Strategies for Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 202(6), 454-463.

Jacobsen SE, Liu F, Jensen CR. 2009. Does root-sourced ABA play a role for regulation of stomata under drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Scientia Horticulturae 122(2), 281-287. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2009.05.019

Kansomjet PT, Lertmongkol S, Sarobol E, Kaewsuwan P, Junhaeng P, Pipattanawong N, Ivan MT. 2017. Response of Physiological Characteristics, Seed Yield and Seed Quality of Quinoa under Difference of Nitrogen Fertilizer Management. American Journal of Plant Physiology 12(1), 20-27. DOI: 10.3923/ajpp.2017.20.27

Kazan K, Lyons R. 2015. The link between flowering time and stress tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 67(1), 47-60.

Lopez-Garcia R. 2007. Quinoa: a traditional Andean crop with new horizons. Cereal Foods World 52(2), 88. DOI: 10.1094/CFW-52-1-0088

Lyimo S, Mduruma Z, De Groote H. 2014. The use of improved maize varieties in Tanzania. African Journal of Agricultural Research 9(7), 643-657.

Maliro MFA, Guwela VF, Nyaika J, Murphy KM. 2017. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi. Frontiers in Plant Science 8(227).

Matata P, Bushesha M, Msindai J. 2019. Assessing Rainfall and Temperature Changes in Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania. American Journal of Climate Change 8(2), 173-189. DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.82010

Oyoo ME, Githiri SM, Ayiecho PO. 2010. Performance of some quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) genotypes in Kenya. African Journal of Plant and Soil 27(2), 187-190.

Präger A, Munz S, Nkebiwe P, Mast B, Graeff-Hönninger S. 2018. Yield and quality characteristics of different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Cultivars grown under field conditions in Southwestern Germany. Agronomy 8(10), 197.

Pulvento C, Riccardi M, Lavini A, d’Andria R, Iafelice G, Marconi E. 2010. Field trial evaluation of two chenopodium quinoa genotypes grown under rain‐fed conditions in a typical Mediterranean environment in South Italy. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Sciences 196(6), 407-411.

Ranhotra G, Gelroth J, Glaser B, Lorenz K, Johnson D. 1993. Composition and protein nutritional quality of quinoa. Cereal chemistry 70, 303-303.

Razzaghi F, Plauborg F, Jacobsen S.-E, Jensen CR, Andersen MN. 2012. Effect of nitrogen and water availability of three soil types on yield, radiation use efficiency and evapotranspiration in field-grown quinoa. Agricultural Water Management 109, 20-29. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2012.02.002

Rosa M, Hilal M, González JA, Prado FE. 2009. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose–starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings. Plant physiology and biochemistry 47(4), 300-307.

Shabala S, Hariadi Y, Jacobsen SE. 2013. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density. Jounal of Plant Physiology 170(10), 906-914.

Sharma V, Chandra S, Dwivedi P, Parturkar M. 2015. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): A nutritional healthy grain. International Journal of Advanced Research 3(9), 725-736.

Sims JT. 2000. Soil test phosphorus: Bray and Kurtz P-1. Methods of phosphorus analysis for soils, sediments, residuals, and waters, 13-14.

Spehar CR, Santos RLB. 2005. Agronomic performance of quinoa selected in the Brazilian Savannah. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 40(6), 609-612.

Strosser E. 2010. Methods for determination of labile soil organic matter: an overview. Journal of Agrobiology 27(2), 49-60.

Vega-Gálvez A, Miranda M, Vergara J, Uribe E, Puente L, Martínez EA. 2010. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90(15), 2541-2547. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4158

Walters H, Carpenter-Boggs L, Desta K, Yan L, Matanguihan J, Murphy K. 2016. Effect of irrigation, intercrop, and cultivar on agronomic and nutritional characteristics of quinoa. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 40(8), 783-803. DOI: 10.1080/21683565.2016.1177805

Ward K, Balaban R. 2000. Determination of pH using water protons and chemical exchange dependent saturation transfer (CEST). Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: An Official Journal of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 44(5), 799-802.

Wingler A. 2015. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature. Frontiers in Plant Science 5(794). DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00794

Yang A, Akhtar SS, Amjad M, Iqbal S, Jacobsen SE. 2016. Growth and Physiological Responses of Quinoa to Drought and Temperature Stress. Journal of Agricultural and Crop Science 202(6), 445-453. DOI: 10.1111/jac.12167

Zikankuba V, James A. 2017. A potential crop for food and nutritional security in Tanzania. American Journal of Research Communication 4(1).

Zurita-Silva A, Jacobsen SE, Razzaghi F, Álvarez Flores R, Ruiz KB, Morales A, Silva Ascencio H. 2015. Quinoa drought responses and adaptation.