Rhizobial biofertilizers and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdcourt) production: Unveiling the synergistic potential for growth and yield in Benin’s challenging the sub-humid zone of Benin

Paper Details

Research Paper 05/05/2024
Views (166) Download (21)

Rhizobial biofertilizers and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdcourt) production: Unveiling the synergistic potential for growth and yield in Benin’s challenging the sub-humid zone of Benin

Mahougnon Charlotte Carmelle Zoundji, Sètondji Martin Tovizounkou, Tobi Moriaque Akplo, Arcadius Martinien Agassin Ahogle, Ibouraïman Balogoun, Felix Alladassi Kouelo, Appolinaire Adandonon, Pascal Houngnandan
Int. J. Biosci.24( 5), 138-150, May 2024.
Certificate: IJB 2024 [Generate Certificate]


Valorization of interaction between indigenous rhizobia and local leguminous varieties is of great economic interest due to its function in enhancing agricultural productivity. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of biofertilizers based on Rhizobium on the productivity of three Bambara groundnut varieties in two semiarid Agro Ecological Zones (AEZ) of Benin (AEZ 4: West Atacora zone and AEZ 5: Cotton zone of the Centre Benin). Four inoculation treatments i.e., control uninoculated, Rhizobium strains LMSEM312, LMSEM338, USDA110 were tested on three Bambara groundnut varieties (Variety 1: Azigokouiwéwékpè; Variety 2: Azigokouivovo; Variety 3: Azigokouiwéwékpoguè) in a Randomized Complete Block design. Results revealed that the different Rhizobia strains improved nodulation and yield parameters of the three Bambara groundnut varieties. Among the tested strains, LMSEM338 induced the highest nodules number (30 nodules per plant) and nodule dry weight (0.34 g plant-1) for the three Bambara varieties in the AEZ 4. In the AEZ 5, the best nodulation was reported on variety 1 inoculated with strain LMSEM312 (28 nodules which weighted 0.31 g). In the AEZ 4, grain yield ranged between 616.63 kg ha-1 (Variety 1 uninoculated) and 1918.64 kg ha-1 (variety 3 inoculated with strain LMSEM 338). In the AEZ 5, grain yield ranged between 518.13 kg ha-1 (variety 1 uninoculated) and 1596.89 kg ha-1 (variety 1 inoculated with strain LMSEM312). These strains could be used as a potent candidate for biofertilizer production to get sustainable yield of Bambara groundnut on marginal soils with minimum inputs.


Abd-Alla MH, Issa AA, Ohyama T. 2014. Impact of harsh environmental conditions on nodule formation and dinitrogen fixation of legumes. Advances in biology and ecology of nitrogen fixation 9(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.5772/56997

Aboubacar K, Ousmane ZM, Amadou HI, Issaka S, Zouberou AM. 2013. Effet de la co-inoculation du rhizobium et de mycorhizes sur les performances agronomiques du niébé [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] au Niger. Journal of applied biosciences 72, 5846-5854. https://doi.org/10.4314/jab.v72i1.99672

Asante M, Ahiabor BDK, Atakora WK. 2020. Growth, Nodulation, and Yield Responses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Combined Application of Rhizobium Inoculant and Phosphorus in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana. International Journal of Agronomy 2020, 8691757. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8691757

Athul PP, Patra RK, Sethi D, Panda N, Mukhi SK, Padhan K, Sahoo SK, Sahoo TR, Mangaraj S, Pradhan SR, Pattanayak, SK. 2022. Efficient native strains of rhizobia improved nodulation and productivity of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rainfed condition. Frontiers in Plant Science 13, 1048696. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.1048696

Bado BV, Sedogo M, Lompo F. 2018. Biological nitrogen fixation by local and improved genotypes of cowpea in Burhina Faso (West Africa): Total Nitrogen Accumulated can be used for Quick Estimation. Advances in Agriculture 641923, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9641923

Bartlett MS. 1937. Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests. Proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society 160, 268–282. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1937.0109

Basu S, Mayes S, Davey M, Roberts JA, Azam-Ali SN, Mithen R, Pasquet RS. 2007. Inheritance of ‘domestication’ traits in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.). Euphytica 157(1), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-007-9396-4

Bertrand W-B, David A, Jacques HD, Guiwa MG. 2021. Evaluation des effets des doses de mycorhizes sur les paramètres de croissance et de la production de trois variétés de Voandzou dans la localité de Dschang, Ouest Cameroun. European Scientific Journal 17(17), 213. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2021.v17n17p213

Bray RH, Kurtz LT. 1945. Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59, 39 – 45. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-194501000-00006

Brink M, Ramolemana G, Sibuga K. 2006. Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. Plant Resources of Tropical African 1, 213-218.

Dansi A, Vodouhè R, Azokpota P, Yedomonhan H, Assogba P, Adjatin A, Loko Y, Dossou-Aminon I, Akpagana K. 2012. Diversity of the neglected and underutilized crop species of importance in Benin. The Scientific World Journal, 2012, 932947. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/932947

Didagbé OY, Houngnandan P, Sin H, Zoundji CC, Kouelo FA, Lakou J, Toukourou F,  Baba-Moussa L. 2014. Response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to exogenous Bradyrhizobium sp strains inoculation and phosphorus supply in two agroecological zones of Benin, West Africa. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 2(6), 623-633.

Elhaissoufi W, Khourchi S, Ibnyasser A, Ghoulam C, Rchiad Z, Zeroual Y, Lyamlouli K, Bargaz A. 2020. Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizobacteria Could Have a stronger Influence on Wheat Root Traits and Aboveground Physiology Than Rhizosphere P Solubilization. Frontiers in Plant Science 11, 979. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00979

Food and Agriculture Organization. 2016. 2016 Année internationale des légumineuses: des graines pour nourrir l’avenir. F. a. A. Organization. Retrieved from https://www.fao.org/3/bb029f/bb029f.pdf

Gbaguidi A, Dansi A, Dossou-Aminon I, Gbemavo D, Orobiyi A, Sanoussi F, Yedomonhan HJG. 2018. Agromorphological diversity of local Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) collected in Benin. Genetic Resources Crop Evolution 65(4), 1159-1171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-017-0603-4

Gbaguidi A, Faouziath S, Orobiyi, A, Dansi M, Akouegninou B, Dansi A. 2015. Connaissances endogènes et perceptions paysannes de l’impact des changements climatiques sur la production et la diversité du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) et du voandzou (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.) au Bénin. International Journal of Biological Chemical Sciences 9(5), 2520-2541. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v9i5.23

Gomoung D, Mbailao M, Toukam ST, Ngakou A. 2017. Influence of cross-inoculation on groundnut and bambara groundnut-Rhizobium symbiosis: Contribution to plant growth and yield in the field at Sarh (Chad) and Ngaoundere (Cameroon). American Journal of Plant Sciences 8(8), 1953-1966. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2017.88131

Guinet, M, Nicolardot B, Durey V, Revellin C, Lombard F, Pimet E, Bizouard F, Voisin A-S. 2019. Fixation symbiotique de l’azote et effet précédent: toutes les légumineuses à graines se valent-elles. Innovations Agronomiques 74, 55-68. https://doi.org/10.15454/jj5qvv

Houngnandan HB, Adandonon A, Akplo TM, Zoundji CC, Kouelo AF, Zeze A, Houngnandan P, Bodjrenou R, Dehoue H, Akinoch J. 2020. Effect of rhizobial inoculation combined with phosphorus fertilizer on nitrogen accumulation, growth and yield of soybean in Benin. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 11(4), 153-163. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5897/JSSEM2020.0833

Hounsou M. 2013. Étude des huit zones agro-écologiques du Bénin. Rapport d’étude, université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin, 56 p.

Ibrahim AR, Dansi A, Salifo M, Ousmane A, Alzouma A, Alou W. 2018. Farmers’ practices, utilization, conservation and marketing of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Dosso Region, Western Niger. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 65(7), 1907-1914. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-018-0664-z

Ikenganyia E, Anikwe M, Ngwu O. 2017. Responses of Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] to phosphate fertilizer rates and plant spacing and effects on soil nutrient statues in a degraded tropical ultisol Agbani Enugu South East Nigeria. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science 17(4), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.9734/IJPSS/2017/32606

Islam MS, Ahmed M, Hossain M.S, Akter H, Aktar S. 2017. Response of soybean to Rhizobium biofertilizer under different levels of phosphorus. Progressive Agriculture 28(4), 302-315. https://doi.org/10.3329/pa.v28i4.36370

Jaiswal SK, Mohammed M, Ibny FYI, Dakora FD. 2021. Rhizobia as a Source of Plant Growth-Promoting Molecules: Potential Applications and Possible Operational Mechanisms [Review]. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 4, 2020 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsufs.2020.619676

Kjeldahl JA. 1883. New method for the determination of nitrogen in organic matter. Fresenius’ Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie 22, 366–382. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01338151

Konate MN, Nandkangre H, Ouoba A, Zida S, Ouedraogo M, Sawadogo N, Nadembega S, Congo A, Sawadogo M. 2019. Genetic diversity of Bambara groundnut accessions from Burkina Faso using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana 12, 1050-1059.

Lawlor D, Lemaire G, Gastal F. 2001.Nitrogen, plant growth and crop yield. In Plant Nitrogen, Lea PJ, Morot-Gaudry JF (eds). INRA; 343-367.

Mateva KI, Tan XL, Halimi RA, Chai HH, Makonya GM, Gao X, Shayanowako AIT, Ho WK, Tanzi AS, Farrant J, Mabhaudhi T, King GJ, Mayes S, Massawe F. 2023. Chapter 21 – Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.). In Farooq M., Siddique KHM, Eds. Neglected and Underutilized Crops. Academic Press, 557-615p. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-90537-4.00021-1

Mathieu C, Pieltain F. 2003. Analyse chimique des sols : méthodes choisies. Edition Tec and Doc Lavoisier.

Matse DT, Huang C-H, Huang Y-M, Yen M-Y. 2020. Nitrogen uptake and growth of white clover inoculated with indigenous and exotic Rhizobium strains. Journal of Plant Nutrition 43(13), 2013-2027. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2020.1758134

Mbaiogaou A, Hema A, Ouedraogo M, Palé E, Naitormbaide M, Mahamout Y, Nacro M. 2013. Etude comparative des teneurs en polyphénols et en antioxydants totaux d’extraits de graines de 44 variétés de voandzou (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt). International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 7(2), 861-871. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v10i2.17

Mbosso C, Boulay B, Padulosi S, Meldrum G, Mohamadou Y, Berthe Niang A, Coulibaly H, Koreissi Y, Sidibé A. 2020. Fonio and Bambara Groundnut Value Chains in Mali: Issues, Needs, and Opportunities for Their Sustainable Promotion. Sustainability 12(11), 4766. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114766

Musa M, Massawe F, Mayes S, Alshareef I, Singh, A. 2016. Nitrogen fixation and N-balance studies on Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) landraces grown on tropical acidic soils of Malaysia. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 47(4), 533-542. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2016.1141928

N’gbesso MFDP, Fondio L, Coulibaly ND. 2017. Efficacité symbiotique de cinq souches locales de rhizobiums sur les paramètres de croissance du soja. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 11(5), 2327-2340. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v11i5.30

Njeru EM, Muthini M, Muindi MM, Ombori O, Nchore SB, Runo S, Maingi JM. 2020. Exploiting Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi-Rhizobia-Legume Symbiosis to Increase Smallholder Farmers’ Crop Production and Resilience Under a Changing Climate. In Singh BR, Safalaoh A, Amuri NA, Eik LO, Sitaula BK, Lal R, Eds. Climate Impacts on Agricultural and Natural Resource Sustainability in Africa. Springer International Publishing, 471-488p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37537-9_27

Nyaga JW, Njeru, EM. 2020. Potential of native rhizobia to improve cowpea growth and production in semiarid regions of Kenya. Frontiers in Agronomy 14(2), 606293. https://doi.org/10.3389/fagro.2020.606293

Olanrewaju OS, Oyatomi O, Babalola OO, Abberton M. 2022. Breeding Potentials of Bambara Groundnut for Food and Nutrition Security in the Face of Climate Change [Review]. Frontiers in Plant Science 12, 798993 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2021.798993

Peoples MB, Crasswell ET. 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation: investments, expectations, and actual contributions to agriculture. Plant and Soil 141, 13 – 39

Robinson GW. 1922. A new method for the mechanical analysis of soils and other dispersions. Journal of Agricultural Science 12(3), 306 – 321. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600005360

Sajid M, Rab A, Wahid F, Shah SNM, Jan I, Khan MA, Hussain SA, Khan MA, Iqbal Z. 2011. Influence of rhizobium inoculation on growth and yield of groundnut cultivars. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 27(4), 573-576.

Sánchez-Navarro V, Zornoza R, Faz Á, Egea-Gilabert C, Ros M, Pascual, JA, Fernández JA. 2020. Inoculation with Different Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Affects Grain Protein Content and Nodule Bacterial Communities of a Fava Bean Crop. Agronomy 10(6), 768. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060768

Shapiro SS, Wilk, MB. 1965. An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52(3-4), 591–611. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591

Sharma P, Sardana V, Kandola SS. 2011. Response of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to Rhizobium Inoculation. Libyan Agriculture Research Center Journal International 2, 101-104.

Touré Y, Koné M., Silué S, Kouadio YJ. 2013. Prospection, collecte et caractérisation agromorphologique des morphotypes de voandzou [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.(Fabaceae)] de la zone savanicole en Côte d’Ivoire. European Scientific Journal 9(24), 309-325. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.

Zoundji C, Houngnandan P, Amidou M, Kouelo F, Toukourou F. 2015. Inoculation and phosphorus application effects on soybean [Glycine max (l.) Merrill] productivity grown in farmers’ fields of Benin. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 25(5), 1384-1392.

Zoundji MCC, Ahogle AMA, Akplo TM, Gangnon SO, Montéiro D, Zanvo I, Kouelo Alladassi F, Houngnandan P. 2022. Resistance to abiotic stress and effectiveness of native rhizobia on Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] in Benin. Open Journal of Soil Science 12,193-215.