Int. J. Biosci.14( 2), 562-575, February 2019
The extensive and discriminate practice of antibiotics has affected severe biological and ecological problems, mainly the development of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics, known to be beneficial, non-pathological microbes, are being suggested as an adequate and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics. More than three decades ago probiotics are first used in aquaculture farming, but the effective application had been given only in the recent years. Different probiotics have been identified and used in aquaculture and many of them are observed as host origin. Alternatives used for aquaculture (antibiotics) up to now have a unilateral mode of action, whereas an indefinite number of potential probiotics has multiple modes of action conferring various health benefits to the host. Recent studies suggest that a number of probiotic research publications in aquaculture focus on disease resistant and health-promoting alternatives and immune development for cultured fish and shrimps. This paper gives updated information on the use of probiotics in aquaculture farming specially targeted on the mechanism of action. It analyzes the enhancement of immune responses, antibacterial, antifungal, the antiviral activity of probiotic microbes, and water quality management in farming and inhibitory metabolites.
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